Skip to main content

A morphological study of Aristolochia holostylis (Aristolochiaceae) reveals the presence of a new species

Abstract

Aristolochia holostylis has long been construed as constituting a single widespread and variable species, ranging across Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil. However, our morphological analysis shows that populations in Bolivia, Paraguay and western Brazil differ by several constant characters of the perianth and indumentum from those in northeastern Brazil. The type specimen possesses the typical morphology of the latter populations; thus, they retain the name A. holostylis, whereas the former populations are recognized here as belonging to a new species, A. pyriflora. We provide new descriptions for both species, along with morphological comparison between them, illustration of diagnostic characters and geographic distributions, and assessment of their respective conservation statuses. The often overlooked infraspecific name Holostylis reniformis f. minor is placed in the synonymy of A. pyriflora.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Literature cited

  • Ahumada, L. Z. 2010. Aristolochiaceae. In: L. Ramella and P. Perret (eds.), Flora del Paraguay 41: 1–74. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève, Switzerland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allio, R., B. Nabholz, S. Wanke, G. Chomicki, O. A. Pérez-Escobar, A. M. Cotton, A. L. Clamens, G. J. Kergoat, F. A. H. Sperling, and F. L. Condamine. 2021. Genome-wide macroevolutionary signatures of key innovations in butterflies colonizing new host Plants. Nature Communications 12: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20507-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bachman, S., J. Moat, A. W. Hill, J. de la Torre & B. Scott. 2011. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.150.2109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blanco, M. A. 2002. Aristolochia gorgona (Aristolochiaceae), a new species with giant flowers from Costa Rica and Panama. Brittonia 54: 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1663/0007-196X(2002)054[0030:AGAANS]2.0.CO;2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chodat, R. & E. Hassler. 1902. Enumeration des plantes récoltées au Paraguay: Aristolochiaceae. Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 3(2): 167–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duchartre, P. 1854. Tentamen methodicae divisionis generis Aristolochia. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 2 (4): 29–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duchartre, P. 1864. Aristolochiaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle (ed.), Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, sive, Enumeratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarium, juxta methodi naturalis, normas digesta 15(1): 421–498. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fernández, E., I. Ferreras, B. D. Farrell, B. A. S. de Medeiros & G. A. Romero-González. 2019. Studies in Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) of Hispaniola. Phytotaxa 420: 1–20. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.420.1.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitas, F., E. J. de Lírio, & F. González. 2013. A new cauliflorous species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Phytotaxa 124: 55–59. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.124.1.7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitas, J., F. González & A. A. Araújo. 2019. Aristolochia lorenae, a new cauliflorous Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from the Brazilian Amazonian Forest. Systematic Botany 44: 101–106. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364419X697949.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitas, F., E. J. de Lírio, & F. González. 2020a. Aristolochiaceae. in Flora do Brasil 2020. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/floradobrasil/FB15757 [Accessed: 11 Nov 2021].

  • Freitas, J., E. J. de Lírio, F. González, V. B. Sarnaglia Junior & A. A. Araújo. 2017a. Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature of the F. C. Hoehne’s names to Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Phytotaxa 307: 65–74. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.307.1.6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitas, J., E. J. de Lírio, M. Peixoto, E. F. Guimarães & A. A. Araújo. 2017b. Aristolochia insolita (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Systematic Botany 42: 169–174. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364417X694953.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitas, J., F. González, O. Poncy, C. Feuillet & A. A. Araújo. 2020b. Floral geometric morphometrics unveils a new cauliflorous species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from the Guiana Shield. Phytotaxa 474: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.474.1.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • González, F. 1997. Hacia una filogenia de Aristolochia y sus congeneres neotropicales. Caldasia 19(1–2): 115–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • González, F. 1999. Un nuevo nombre para Holostylis reniformis Duchartre (Aristolochiaceae). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 23(88): 337–339.

    Google Scholar 

  • González, F. 2012. Florística y sistemática filogenética innecesariamente disyuntas: El caso de Aristolochia, Euglypha y Holostylis (Aristolochiaceae). Revista de La Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 36(139): 193–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • González, F. & D. W. Stevenson. 2000a. Gynostemium development in Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 122: 249–291.

    Google Scholar 

  • González, F. & D. W. Stevenson. 2000b. Perianth development and systematics of Aristolochia. Flora 195: 370–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-2530(17)30995-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • González, F. & D. W. Stevenson. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). Revista de La Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 26: 25–60.

    Google Scholar 

  • González, F., C. Neinhuis & S. Wanke. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of Aristolochiaceae subfamily Aristolochioideae based on molecular and morphological data. Pp. 202 in Abstracts, XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoehne, F. C. 1910. Aristolochiaceae. In: Commissão de linhas telegraphicas estrategicas de Matto Grosso ao Amazonas. Annexo no. 5, Historia natural. Botanica part 1: 65-69, plates 59-62. Rio de Janeiro.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoehne, F. C. 1927. Monographia illustrada das Aristolochiaceas brasileiras. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 20: 67–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoehne, F. C. 1942. Aristolochiaceae. Flora Brasílica 15: 3–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber, H. 1960. Zur Abgrenzung der Gattung Aristolochia L. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 3: 531–553.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber, H. 1985. Samenmerkmale und Gliederung der Aristolochiaceen. Botanische Jahrbücher Für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 107: 277–320.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huber, H. 1993: Aristolochiaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G. & Bittrich, V. (eds.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants 2: 129–137. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • IPNI. 2021. International Plant Names Index. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria & Libraries and Australian National Botanic Gardens. http://www.ipni.org [Accessed 20 October 2021].

  • IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, 2nd ed. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2734.

    Google Scholar 

  • IUCN. 2013. Documentation standards and consistency checks for IUCN Red List assessments and species accounts, Version 2. Adopted by the IUCN Red List Committee and IUCN SSC Steering Committee. Downloadable from: https://nc.iucnredlist.org/redlist/resources/files/1530703338-RL_Standards_Consistency.pdf.

  • IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 14. Downloadable from: https://nc.iucnredlist.org/redlist/content/attachment_files/RedListGuidelines.pdf.

  • Jiménez, J. E., R. A. Fernández & M. A. Blanco. 2021. Two new species of Aristolochia series Thyrsicae (Aristolochiaceae) from southern Central America, with comments on morphologically similar species. Phytotaxa 520: 169–183. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.520.2.4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly, L. M. & F. González. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Aristolochiaceae. Systematic Botany 28: 236–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuntze, O. 1891. Aristolochiaceae. Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 563–564. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.124064.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martins, G. F., M. D. P. Pereira, L. M. X. Lopes, T. da Silva, P. de T. Vieira e Rosa, F. P. Barbosa, G. B. Messiano & A. U. Krettli. 2014. Intraspecific variability of Holostylis reniformis: Concentration of lignans, as determined by Maceration and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE-CO2), as a function of plant provenance and plant parts. Quimica Nova 37: 281–87. https://doi.org/10.5935/0100-4042.20140048.

  • Murata, J., T. Ohi, S. Wu, D. Darnaedi, T. Sugawara, T. Nakanishi & H. Murata. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) inferred from matK sequences. The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics 52:75–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ohi-Toma, T., T. Sugawara, H. Murata, S. Wanke, C. Neinhuis, and J. Murata. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Aristolochia sensu lato (Aristolochiaceae) based on sequences of rbcL, matK, and phyA genes, with special reference to differentiation of chromosome numbers. Systematic Botany 31: 481–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • QGIS Development Team 2020. QGIS Geographic Information System, Ver. 3.22.0. Open Source Geospatial Foundation. Available from: https://qgis.org [Accessed: 20 Oct 2021].

  • Reichenbach, H. G. L. 1841. Das Herbarienbuch: Erklärung des natürlichen Pflanzensystems, systematische Aufzählung, Synonymik und Register der bis jetzt bekannten Pflanzengattungen. Series: Der deutsche Botaniker, 1: 77. Dresden, Leipzig, Germany. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7694.

  • Pereira, M. D. P., M. R. Ferreira, G. B. Messiano, I. P. Cerávolo, L. M. X. Lopes & A. U. Krettli. 2015. Aryltetralols from Holostylis reniformis and syntheses of lignan analogous. Phytochemistry Letters 13: 200–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2015.06.001.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Souza, V. C. & H. Lorenzi. 2005. Botânica Sistemática. Guia ilustrado para identificação das famílias de Angiospermas da flora brasileira, baseado em APG II. Nova Odessa, Brazil.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wanke, S., F. González & C. Neinhuis. 2006. Systematics of pipevines: combining morphological and fast-evolving molecular characters to investigate the relationships within subfamily Aristolochioideae (Aristolochiaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 167: 1215–1227. https://doi.org/10.1086/508024.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • WCSP. 2021. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet: http://wcsp.science.kew.org/ [Accessed: 20 October 2021].

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the curators of the following herbaria for making the cited specimens available for study: BHCB, CEN, COL, CONN, CTES, ESA, FI, G, HEPH, HRCB, GH, IAC, IAN, IBGE, K, L, MBML, MO, NY, P, RB, S, SJRP, SPF, UFG, UFRN, US, TEX. DF thanks Clay Dove (Florida, USA), Mauro Peixoto (São Paulo, Brazil) and Philipp Gießibl (Bavaria, Germany) for discussions on the diversity of Aristolochia holostylis and for providing photos. The Bonn University Botanic Gardens, and in particular Rebecca Hilgenhof (Edinburgh Botanic Garden) and Norbert Holstein (Natural History Museum, London), are gratefully acknowledged for enabling examination of cultivated specimens. David Prehsler (University of Vienna) kindly investigated the nomina nuda A. campanaeformis and A. cucullata in W and WU. JAL thanks the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq for a research fellowship grant (# 303450/2016-9) and research grant (# 405553/2016-1); the Instituto Plantarum for enabling the expedition that resulted in collections of the new species, and Alessandra Ike Coan for help with the investigation of trichomes. The authors also thank Stefan Wanke and an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on the submitted manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dominik Frank.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest statement

The authors declare that they are unaware of any conflicts of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Frank, D., Lombardi, J.A. & Monro, A.K. A morphological study of Aristolochia holostylis (Aristolochiaceae) reveals the presence of a new species. Brittonia 74, 227–238 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12228-022-09710-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12228-022-09710-2

Keywords

  • Flora of Brazil
  • Holostylis
  • new species
  • taxonomy