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Vitex pomerana (Lamiaceae; Viticoideae), a new unifoliolate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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Vitex comprises c. 250 species in a pantropical distribution, with 34 species recognised for Brazil. During fieldwork in remnants of the Atlantic Forest showing vegetation associated with inselbergs in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, a unique, unmatched unifoliolate species of Vitex was found. Based on herbaria consultation and literature review, we propose this as a new species, Vitex pomerana. The new species is unique in the genus due to the presence of unifoliolate leaves, a rare feature in the genus, together with brochidodromous venation of leaflets, dorsifixed anthers, shape and size of leaflets, and petiole and peduncle sizes. We compared the new species with V. gardneriana and V. snethlagiana, the only two other unifoliolate-leaved Vitex species occurring in Brazil. The new species is known from only a few individuals so far and is micro endemic to a biodiversity hotspot that suffers from habitat loss and degradation, and would likely be considered Endangered (EN), based on the criteria of the IUCN red list. This finding increases the number of angiosperm species endemic to the Atlantic Forest and inselbergs in the state of Espírito Santo and highlights the urgency of conserving this highly threatened vegetation.

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The authors thank the curators of the herbaria consulted. CNF thanks CNPq and FAPERJ for financial support; JF thanks CNPq (Programa de Capacitação Institucional – PCI/INMA) of the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI) for the fellowship granted; GMA thanks IdeaWild for financial support.


This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) given to CNF (grant no. 422191/2021-3) and JF (grant no. 302136/2022-3); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) given to CNF (grant no. 201.280/2022); and Idea Wild given to GMA.

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Appendix 1. List of material examined of Vitex gardneriana and V. snethlagiana

Appendix 1. List of material examined of Vitex gardneriana and V. snethlagiana

Vitex gardneriana

brazil. Alagoas: Pão de Açúcar, margem do Riacho Grande, 20 Oct. 2002, 9°43'10”W, 37°28'74”S, Lyra-Lemos et al. 7018 (MAC); Pão de Açúcar, riacho grande, Fazenda Morro Preto, a 6 km da zona urbana, 23 Feb. 2002, 9°42'52”W, 37°28'30”S, Lyra-Lemos et al. 6227 (MAC); Paulo Afonso falls, 30 Nov. 1924, Chase 7808 (US); Piranhas, distr. de Entre Montes, beira do rio São Francisco, 23 Oct. 2016, 9°40'23”W, 37°39'32”S, Figueira & Schindler 520 (MAC, RB). Bahia: Curaça, caminho para a fazenda Mucambo, 22 Oct. 2011, 8°58'57”W, 39°36'22”S, Melo et al. 10500 (HUEFS); Curaça, propriedade do Sr. Lió, 21 Oct. 2011, 9°8'32”W, 39°33'33”S, Melo et al. 10488 (HUEFS); Curaça, Riacho São Bento, 23 Dec. 2001, 9°9'20”W, 39°37'43”S, Esteves 9 (HRB, SPF); Curaçá, Rio Curaçá, 12 Aug. 1983, 9°8'W, 39°56'S, Silva & Pinto 290 (ALCB, MBM, NY); Juazeiro, Fazenda Lagoa do Boi, 6 June 1973, 9°47'10”W, 40°15'3”S, Lima 13158 (PEUFR); Juazeiro, Piçarrão, arredores da ponte na entrada da cidade, 25 July 2009, 9°41'3.9”W, 40°8'26”S, Paula-Souza et al. 10203 (SPF); Paulo Afonso, Cachoeiras, Caatinga, Oct. 1949, 9°22'28”W, 38°12'5”S, Pinto 375 (ALCB); Rodelas, Estrada de Cruz Grande a Surubabel, 22 Jan. 1987, 8°53'36”W, 38°44'56”S, Mattos-Silva & Silva 39 (ALCB). Ceará: Banks of Rio Palhanos, 10 km S of Cristais, 30 Aug. 1935, 4°34'16”W, 38°21'10”S, Drouet 2389 (NY); Crateús, Serra das Almas, 5 May 2003, 5°9'18”W, 40°54'40”S, Costa 330 (EAC, UFRN); Icó, próximo a BR-116, local denominado Várzea Grande, 14 July 1984, 6°17'W, 38°45'S, Silva 236 (ALCB, RB); Santa Quitéria, 1.5 km E da sede da Fazenda Itatiaia, 23 April 2012, 4°34'31.4”W, 39°47'40.52”S, Paula-Souza et al. 10813 (ESA, RB); Santa Quitéria, 13.8 km SW (em linha reta) da sede da Fazenda Itatiaia, 28 April 2012, 4°36'55.11”W, 39°54'32.48”S, Paula-Souza et al. 11072 (ESA ); Santa Quitéria, 6 km SW (em linha reta) da sede da Fazenda Itatiaia, 25 April 2012, 4°36'29.33”W, 39°50'21.16”S, Paula-Souza et al. 10961 (EAC, ESA, RB). Paraíba: Araruna, Parque Ecológico da Pedra da Boca, 14 April 2002, 6°27'14”W, 35°40'49”S, Barbosa et al. 2418 (JPB); Cabaceiras, 25 Jan. 2008, 7°29'21”W, 36°17'14”S, Pessoa & Lima 270 (JPB); Gurjão, Rio Soledade, 25 May 2004, 7°14'48”W, 36°29'21.8”S, Lacerda & Barbosa 126 (JPB); Malta, fazenda Jatobá, 3 July 2003, 6°54'16”W, 37°31'18.8”S, Sobrinho 69 (IPA); Parque Estadual Pedra da Boca, 29 Nov. 2011, 6°33'30”W, 35°44'30”S, Pessoa 51 (JPB); Patos, propriedade da Associação dos Professores da UFPB, na margem do riacho Barraginha, 2 Aug. 1993, Silva s.n. (SPF); Pombal, 21 June 1935, Pickel 3951 (NY); Rio Taperoá, 20 Jan. 2005, 7°23'27”W, 36°31'58.1”S, Lacerda 318 (JPB); São Bento, leito do rio Piranhas, 24 Aug. 2013, 6°28'38.2”W, 37°27'4.1”S, Medeiros et al. 8 (ASE, CSTR); São João do Cariri, Riacho Gangorra, Mata ciliar, 13 March 2003, 7°23'27”W, 36°31'58.1”S, Lacerda 53 (JPB); São João do Cariri, Riacho Gangorra, 9 March 2004, 7°22'36”W, 36°32'38”S, Lacerda & Barbosa 70 (JPB); São João do Cariri, Riacho Gangorra, 29 Sept. 2004, 7°22'53”W, 36°32'21”S, Lacerda & Barbosa 226 (JPB); São José de Espinharas, margem do rio Espinharas, Aug. 2002, 6°51'21”W, 37°18'50”S, Xavier s.n. (IPA); Sousa, Fazenda Jangada, 8 Sept. 1994, 6°45'34”W, 38°13'41”S, Gadelha-Neto et al. 153 (JPB); Tacima, Parque Estadual Pedra da Boca, 8 March 2002, 6°29'18”W, 35°38'13.9”S, Agra et al. 5626 (JPB); Vale dos Dinossauros, 1 Jan. 1992, 6°45'34”W, 38°13'41”S, Gadelha-Neto 472 (JPB). Pernambuco: Floresta, Fazenda Quebra Ulha, margem do riacho do Navio, 12 Nov. 2003, 8°32'31”W, 38°14'10”S, Ferraz 32 (HST); Bodocó, ao sul de Bodocó e 2 km ao Norte da Barragem, Lopez II. Leito de afluente do rio Gravatá, 17 Oct. 1984, 7°82'50”W, 39°93'33”S, Fotius & Sá 3898 (HTSA, HUEFS); Cabrobró, 2 Feb. 2009, 8°26'56.8”W, 39°25'35.9”S, Carvalho-Sobrinho 1836 (HVSAT); Cabrobró, área do canal, 21 Jan. 2009, 8°26'55”W, 39°25'45”S, Maciel et al. 678 (HUEFS, HVSAT); Cabrobró, distr. de Cabrobrózinho, Fazenda Entre-Serras, 1 Dec. 2008, 8°17'6”W, 39°21'39.4”S, Ferraz et al. 59 (HUEFS, HVSAT); Cabrobró, próximo à margem do canal, 26 May 2015, 8°22'12.54”W, 39°18'55”S, Oliveira & Ferreira 6146 (HUEFS, RB); Custódia, lote 10, 10 Dec. 2010, 8°45'45.2”W, 37°52'22.1”S, Oliveira 5349 (HUEFS); Santa Maria da Boa Vista, c. 119 km da cidade de Ouricuri - BR122, 30 July 1981, 8°48'5”W, 39°48'39”S, Andrade-Lima 115 (IPA, SP); Sertânia, Fazenda Sussuarana, 2 Aug. 1984, 8°5'40”W, 37°15'5”S, Lima 2147 (HTSA); Sertânia, Reservatório Negros, 21 Aug. 2018, 8°13'17.04”W, 37°10'23.18”S, Lima 1197 (RB); Sertânia, Reservatório Negros, 21 Aug. 2018, 8°13'3.36”W, 37°10'12.92”S, Lima 1196 (RB). Rio Grande do Norte: Apodi, Baixa Fechada, "terreno dos Valdivino", margem do rio Apodi-Mossoró, 11 Oct. 2008, 5°40'37”W, 37°45'8”S, Oliveira et al. 2332 (UFRN); Currais Novos, 27 May 2010, 6°19'47”W, 36°30'29”S, Jardim et al. 5726 (UFRN); São Fernando, Sítio de Barra, 8 Jan. 2001, 8°32'31”W, 38°14'10”S, Roque 385 (UFRN). Sergipe: Canindé do São Francisco, Prainha de Canindé, 30 April 1999, 9°38'25”W, 37°47'10”S, Moura & Santos 155 (RB); Canindé do São Francisco, Reserva da Chesf, após Infovia, 17 Oct. 2000, 9°38'5”W, 37°47'31”S, Cordeiro et al. 212 (ASE, MAC); Itabaiana, entre pedras do rio Paraíba, 26 Nov. 1971, 10°42'22”W, 37°21'14”S, Andrade-Lima et al. 1019 (ASE).

Vitex snethlagiana

brazil. Pará: Altamira, Xingu, Comunidade Costa Júnior, 21 April 2018, Silva 181 (MFS); Rio Xingú (beira), 2 July 1909, Snethlage s.n. (holotype MG).

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Antar, G.M., de Lírio, E.J., Freitas, J. et al. Vitex pomerana (Lamiaceae; Viticoideae), a new unifoliolate species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Kew Bull 77, 941–952 (2022).

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