Advertisement

Kew Bulletin

, 73:11 | Cite as

The taxonomy and morphology of Schizomeria (Cunoniaceae) in New Guinea, the Moluccas and the Solomon Islands, with notes on seed dispersal and uses throughout the genus

  • Helen C. F. Hopkins
Article

Summary

Schizomeria is a genus of forest trees or occasionally understorey shrubs represented by some seven species in New Guinea, one of which extends west to the Moluccas and two eastwards to the Solomon Islands; an additional two or three species occur in eastern Australia. In New Guinea, Schizomeria grows from lowland to subalpine forest, with most species occurring in the montane zone. This revision presents a key to the species, plus synonymy, descriptions, distribution maps, provisional conservation assessments and an index to collections for the taxa in New Guinea, the Moluccas and the Solomon Islands; local names are given in an Appendix. Species delimitation in New Guinea is not always straightforward and several taxa are quite variable, or have blurred boundaries, or both. Morphological characters that are useful in distinguishing among species include the type and distribution of the indumentum, the structure and position of the inflorescence (whether terminal, false-terminal or axillary) and the presence or absence of subspherical glands on the leaves. The flowers are polysymmetric, green, white or pale yellow, with small, 3-toothed petals; some species are andromonoecious. The subspherical or ellipsoidal drupes have a brown, orange, yellowish or whitish epicarp; they are dispersed by vertebrates, including cassowaries, fruit-bats and other arboreal frugivores including pigeons. The timber has some commercial value plus a number of local uses. Data for the Australian taxa are included in the discussions of dispersal and uses.

Key Words

cassowary inflorescence structure leaf glands montane forest taxonomic complexity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I started this study as a Visiting Research Fellow in the Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University and I am grateful to Prof. John Whittaker for facilitating this arrangement. Funding at LANC was provided by L from the Kosterman’s Bequest, kindly arranged by Prof. Pieter Baas. The work was completed at K, where I thank Bob Johns for coating the SEM stubs, Chrissie Prychid for taking the SEM photographs, Hazel Wilkinson for guidance about cutting leaf sections, David Frodin for help with obscure localities, Rafaël Govaerts for advice regarding nomenclature and types, and Lulu Rico for hospitality in London in the early stages of the work. I am grateful to the curators of the following herbaria for access to collections or for providing images: A, B, BM, BO, CANB, E, K, L, LAE, MO, P, QRS (now incorporated in CNS) and SING, and especially L for making material from other institutions available for study at LANC. I also thank QRS, Jason Bradford and Rhys Gardner for gifts of material; Jason Bradford, Mark Coode, Rhys Gardner and Tim Utteridge for photographs; Debra Wright and Andy Mack for information on seed dispersal by cassowaries; Andrew Rozefelds for discussions on Australian Schizomeria; Holly Somerville for the beautiful line drawings; and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on the manuscript. Files of taxonomic literature on the Cunoniaceae, complied by Ruurd D. Hoogland and deposited at P, were consulted regarding names and protologues.

References

  1. Bailey, F. M. (1900). The Queensland flora, part 2. H. J. Diddams, Brisbane. (Whole work in 6 parts + index, publ. 1899 – 1905).Google Scholar
  2. Baillon, H. E. (1874). The natural history of plants. English ed., translated by M. M. Hartog. Vol. 3. L. Reeve & Co., London.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, R. W., Hill, R. S. & Bradford, J. C. (2001). The history of Cunoniaceae in Australia from macrofossil evidence. Austral. J. Bot. 49: 301 – 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ____ & Rozefelds, A. C. (2000). Comparative morphology of Anodopetalum (Cunoniaceae). Austral. Syst. Bot. 13: 267 – 282.Google Scholar
  5. Bentham, G. (1864). Flora australiensis, Vol. 2. Lovell Reeve & Co., London.Google Scholar
  6. ____ & Hooker, J. D. (1865). Genera plantarum, Vol. 1, part 2. Lovell Reeve & Co., London.Google Scholar
  7. Beehler, B. M. & Pratt, T. K. (2016). Birds of New Guinea: distribution, taxonomy, and systematics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  8. Boas, I. H. (1947). The commercial timbers of Australia: their properties and uses. CSIR, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  9. Boland, D. J., Brooker, M. I. H., Chippendale, G. M., Hall, N., Hyland, B. P. M., Johnston, R. D., Kleinig, D. A. & Turner, J. D. (1984). Forest trees of Australia. Nelson & CSIRO, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  10. Bonaccorso, F. J. (1998). Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International Tropical Field Guide No. 2. Conservation International, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  11. Borrell, O. W. (1989). An annotated checklist of the flora of Kairiru Island, New Guinea. Published by the author, Marcellin College, Bulleen, Victoria.Google Scholar
  12. Bradford, J. C. & Barnes, R. W. (2001). Phylogenetics and classification of Cunoniaceae (Oxalidales) using chloroplast DNA sequences and morphology. Syst. Bot. 26: 354 – 385.Google Scholar
  13. ____, Hopkins, H. C. F. & Barnes, R. W. (2004). Cunoniaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), Families and genera of vascular plants, Vol. 6: 91 – 111. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  14. Bradford, M. G., Dennis, A. J. & Westcott, D. A. (2008). Diet and dietary preferences of the Southern Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) in northern Queensland, Australia. Biotropica 40: 338 – 343. Supplementary information on line at www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp
  15. ____ & Westcott, D. A. (2010). Consequences of southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius, L.) gut passage and deposition pattern on the germination of rainforest seeds. Austral Ecology 35: 325 – 333.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02041.x.
  16. Brooks, R. R. (1987). Serpentine and its vegetation, a multidisciplinary approach. Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  17. Carpenter, R. J. & Buchanan, A. M. (1993). Oligocene leaves, fruit and flowers of the Cunoniaceae from Cethana, Tasmania. Austral. Syst. Bot. 6: 91 – 109.Google Scholar
  18. Centre for Australian Biodiversity Research (published on the internet.) User documentation for ANHSIR. The Papuasian region. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/anhsir/anhsir-manual/papuasia.html (accessed 17 Feb 2015).
  19. Chenery, E. M. (1948). Aluminium in the plant world. Part 1. General survey in dicotyledons. Kew Bull. 1948: 173 – 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ____ & Sporne, K. R. (1976). A note on the evolutionary status of aluminium-accumulators among dicotyledons. New Phytol. 76: 551 – 554.Google Scholar
  21. Cherikoff, V. (1997). The bushfood handbook: how to gather, grow, process and cook Australian wild foods. Bush Tucker Supply Australia, Boronia Park, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  22. Clifford, H. T. & Dettmann, M. E. (2001). Drupe — a term in search of a definition. Austrobaileya 6: 127 – 131.Google Scholar
  23. Coates Palgrave, K. (2002). Trees of Southern Africa, revised ed. Struik, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  24. Conn, B. J. (1990). Mary Strong Clemens: a botanical collector in New Guinea (1935 – 1941). In: P. S. Short (ed.), History of systematic botany in Australasia. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Melbourne, 25 – 27 May 1988, pp. 217 – 229. Australian Systematic Botany Society Inc., South Yarra, Victoria.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, W. & Cooper, W. T. (1994). Fruits of the rain forest: a guide to fruits in Australian tropical rain forests. GEO Productions, Chatswood, NSW.Google Scholar
  26. ____ & ____ (2004). Fruits of the Australian tropical rainforest. Nokomis Editions, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  27. Crome, F. H. J. (1976). Some observations on the biology of the cassowary in northern Queensland. Emu 76: 8 – 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cronk, Q. C. B. (1998). The ochlospecies concept. In: C. R. Huxley, J. M. Lock & D. E. Cutler (eds), Chorology, taxonomy and ecology of the floras of Africa and Madagascar, pp. 155 – 170. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  29. Dadswell, H. E. & Eckersley, A. M. (1938). The wood structure of some Australian Cunoniaceae, with methods for their identification. CSIR Bulletin No. 119.Google Scholar
  30. Dickison, W. C. (1980). Comparative wood anatomy and evolution of the Cunoniaceae. Allertonia 2: 281 – 321.Google Scholar
  31. ____ (1984). Fruits and seeds of the Cunoniaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 65: 149 – 190.Google Scholar
  32. ____ (1998). Schizomeria D. Don. In: M. S. M. Sosef, L. T. Hong & Prawirohatmodjo (eds), Plant resources of South-East Asia no. 5, part 3. Timber trees: lesser-known species, pp. 509 – 511. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.Google Scholar
  33. Don, D. (1830). A monograph of the family of plants called Cunoniaceae. Edinburgh New Philos. J. 9: 84 – 96.Google Scholar
  34. Eby, P. (1998). An analysis of diet specialisation in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus (Megachiroptera) in Australian subtropical rainforest. Austral. J. Ecol. 23: 443 – 456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.1998.tb00752.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Endress, P. K. & Stumpf, S. (1991). The diversity of stamen structures in ‘Lower’ Rosidae (Rosales, Fabales, Proteales, Sapindales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 107: 217 – 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Engler, A. (published 1928, dated 1930). Cunoniaceae. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., 18a: 229 – 262. Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  37. Filer, C., Keenan, R. J., Allen, B. J. & Mcalpine, J. R. (2009). Deforestation and forest degradation in Papua New Guinea. Ann. Forest. Sci. 66, article 813: 1 – 12.  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009067
  38. Francis, W. D. (1970). Australian rain-forest trees, 3rd ed. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.Google Scholar
  39. Frodin, D. J. (1990). Explorers, institutions and outside influences: botany north of Thursday. In: P. S. Short (ed.), History of systematic botany in Australasia. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Melbourne, 25 – 27 May 1988, pp. 193 – 215. Australian Systematic Botany Society Inc., South Yarra, Victoria.Google Scholar
  40. Fuzzy Gazetteer (published on the internet). http://isodp.hof-university.de/fuzzyg/query [accessed Nov. – Dec. 2015].
  41. GeoCAT (published on the internet). http://geocat.kew.org [accessed Nov. – Dec. 2015].
  42. Harden, G. J. (1990). Flora of New South Wales, Vol. 1. New South Wales University Press, Kensington.Google Scholar
  43. ____ & Williams, J. B. (2000). A revision of Davidsonia (Cunoniaceae). Telopea 8: 413 – 428.Google Scholar
  44. Havel, J. J. (1975). Training manual for the Forestry College, Vol. 3. Forest Botany. Part 2. Botanical taxonomy. Papua New Guinea Department of Forests, Port Moresby.Google Scholar
  45. Heyne, K. (1950). De Nuttige Planten van Indonesië. 3rd ed., Vol. 1. N. V. Uitgeverij W. van Hoeve, ‘s-Gravenhage/Bandung.Google Scholar
  46. Hideux, M. J. & Ferguson, I. K. (1976). The stereostructure of the exine and its evolutionary significance in Saxifragaceae sensu lato. In: I. K. Ferguson & J. Muller (eds), The evolutionary significance of the exine, pp. 327 – 377. Linnean Society Symposium Series No. 1.Google Scholar
  47. Hochreutiner, B. P. G. (1904). Plantae bogorienses exsiccatae. Instituti botanici bogorienses, Buitenzorg.Google Scholar
  48. ____ (1905). Catalogus bogorienses novus. Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenzorg 22: 1 – 132.Google Scholar
  49. ____ (1907). Rectification touchant les plantae bogorienses exsiccatae. Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 10: 118 – 119.Google Scholar
  50. ____ (1910). Descriptiones plantarum bogoriensium exsiccatarum novarum. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Suppl. 3: 815 – 868.Google Scholar
  51. Hopkins, H. C. F. (1992). Fruits and seeds from faeces of Dwarf Cassowary Casuarius bennetti from 3260 m on English Peaks, Papua New Guinea. Muruk 5: 101 – 106.Google Scholar
  52. ____ (2001). A new species of Schizomeria (Cunoniaceae) from New Guinea. Blumea 46: 185 – 187.Google Scholar
  53. ____ & Hoogland, R. D. (2002). Cunoniaceae. Flora Malesiana ser. I, 16: 53 – 165.Google Scholar
  54. ____, Pillon, Y. & Hoogland, R. D. (2014). Cunoniaceae. Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie 26: 1 – 455. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris & IRD, Marseille.Google Scholar
  55. Hyland, B. P. M. (1971). A key to common rain forest trees between Townsville and Cooktown based on leaf and bark features. Dept. of Forestry, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  56. ____ & Whiffin, T. (1993). Australian tropical rain forest trees: an interactive identification system, Vol. 2. CSIRO, Canberra.Google Scholar
  57. Innis, G. J. (1989). Feeding ecology of fruit pigeons in subtropical rainforests of south-eastern Queensland. Austral. Wildlife Res. 16: 365 – 394.  https://doi.org/10.1071/WR9890365
  58. Isaacs, J. (1997). Bush food: Aboriginal food and herbal medicine. Lansdowne, The Rocks, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  59. IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 3.1. 2nd ed. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland and Cambridge.Google Scholar
  60. ____ (2016 online). Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 12 (February 2016). Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf [accessed June 2016].
  61. Jaffré, T., Brooks, R. R. & Trow, J. M. (1979). Hyperaccumulation of nickel by Geissois species. Pl. Soil 51: 157 – 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. ____, Pillon, Y., Thomine, S. & Merlot, S. (2013). The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 4, article 279, pp. 1 – 7.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00279
  63. Jansen, S., Broadley, M. R., Robbrecht, E. & Smets, E. (2002). Aluminium hyperaccumulation in angiosperms: a review of its phylogenetic significance. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 68: 235 – 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kanehira, R. & Hatusima, S. (1942). The Kanehira-Hatusima 1940 collection of New Guinea plants VII. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 56: 105 – 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Keating, W. G. & Bolza, E. (1982). Characteristics, properties, and uses of timbers, Vol. 1, no. 296. Inkata Press, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  66. Lamothe, L., Arentz, F. & Karimbaram (1990). Germination of cassowary egested and manually defleshed fruit. Papua New Guinea J. Agric., Forest. & Fish. 35: 37 – 42.Google Scholar
  67. Low, T. (1991). Wild food plants of Australia. Australian nature fieldguide series, Angus & Robertson, Sydney.Google Scholar
  68. Ma, J. F., Ryan, P. R. & Delhaize, E. (2001). Aluminium tolerance in plants and the complexing role of organic acids. Trends Pl. Sci. 6: 273 – 278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mack, A. L. (1995). Seed dispersal by the Dwarf Cassowary, Casuarius bennetti, in Papua New Guinea. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.Google Scholar
  70. Maiden, J. H. (1889). The useful native plants of Australia (including Tasmania). Trubner, London.Google Scholar
  71. ____ (1914). No. 201. Schizomeria ovata D. Don. In: The forest flora of New South Wales, Vol. 6: 75 – 78 + pl. 205. Forest Dept. of New South Wales, Sydney.Google Scholar
  72. Mattfeld, J. (1939). Einige neue Cunoniaceen aus Neuguinea. J. Arnold Arbor. 20: 432 – 436.Google Scholar
  73. NGA Geonet Names Server (published on the internet). http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html [accessed December 2015].
  74. McNeill, J., Barrie, F. R., Buck, W. R., Demoulin, V., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P. S., Knapp, S., Marhold, K., Prado, J., Prud’homme van Reine, W. F., Smith, G. F., Wiersema, J. H. & Turland, N. J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). Regnum Veg. 154: 1 – 208. (and published on the internet). http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php [accessed 15 July 2015].
  75. McPherson, G. & Lowry II, P. P. (2004). Hooglandia, a newly discovered genus of Cunoniaceae from New Caledonia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 260 – 265.Google Scholar
  76. Menzies, J. (1991). A handbook of New Guinea marsupials and monotremes. Kristen Press, Madang, Papua New Guinea.Google Scholar
  77. Merrill, E. D. (1917). An interpretation of Rumphius’s Herbarium amboinense. Bureau of Printing, Manila.Google Scholar
  78. Mickleburgh, S. P., Hutson, A. M. & Racey, P. A. (1992). Old World Fruit Bats: an action plan for their conservation. IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  79. Muller, J. & Barnes, R. W. (2002). Palynology. In: H. C. F. Hopkins & R. D. Hoogland, Cunoniaceae. Flora Malesiana ser. I, 16: 79 – 80.Google Scholar
  80. Nilson, A. (1884). The timber trees of New South Wales. Govt. Printer, Sydney.Google Scholar
  81. Perry, L. M. (1949). Plantae Papuanae Archboldianae, XIX. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 139 – 165.Google Scholar
  82. Peterson, B. D., Garren, W. R. & Heyda, C. M. (1982). Gazetteer of Papua New Guinea. Defence Mapping Agency, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  83. van der Pijl, L. (1957). The dispersal of plants by bats (chiropterochory). Acta Bot. Neerl. 6: 291 – 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pillon, Y., Hopkins, H. C. F., Rigault, F., Jaffré, T. & Stacy, E. A. (2014). Cryptic adaptive radiation in rainforest trees in New Caledonia. New Phytol. 202: 521 – 530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Powell, J. M. (1976). Ethnobotany. In: K. Paijmans (ed.), Neew Guinea vegetation, pp. 106 – 183. Australian National University Press, Canberra.Google Scholar
  86. Pratt, T. K. (“1982”, published 1983). Diet of the Dwarf Cassowary Casuarius bennetti picticollis at Wau, Papua New Guinea. Emu 82 (Supplement): 283 – 285.Google Scholar
  87. ____, Beehler, B. M., Anderson, J. C. & Kókay, S. (2014). Birds of New Guinea, 2nd ed. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  88. Prenner, G., Bateman, R. M. & Rudall, P. J. (2010). Floral formulae updated for routine inclusion in formal taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 59: 241 – 250.Google Scholar
  89. Quattrocchi, U. (2000). CRC world dictionary of plant names. IV. R – Z. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  90. Ridley, H. N. (1916). Report on the botany of the Wollaston expedition to Dutch New Guinea 1912 – 13. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. Ser. 2, 9: 1 – 269 + figs.Google Scholar
  91. Roberts, B. J. (2006). Management of urban flying-fox camps. Issues of relevance to camps in the Lower Clarence Valley, NSW. A report for Valley Watch Inc. and the Department of Environment & Conservation. Published by Valley Watch Inc., New South Wales.Google Scholar
  92. van Royen, P. (1982). The alpine flora of New Guinea, Vol. 3. Taxonomic Part, Winteraceae to Polygonaceae. J. Cramer, Vaduz.Google Scholar
  93. Rozefelds, A. C. & Barnes, R. W. (2002). The systematics and biogeographical relationships of Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) in Australia and New Guinea. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 163: 651 – 673.Google Scholar
  94. Rumphius, G. E. (1741 – 1755). Herbarium amboinense. Amsterdam. 7 parts.Google Scholar
  95. Rutishauser, R. & Dickison, W. C. (1989). Developmental morphology of stipules and systematics of the Cunoniaceae and presumed allies. I. Taxa with interpetiolar stipules. Bot. Helvet. 99: 147 – 169.Google Scholar
  96. Schlechter, F. R. R. (1914). Die Cunoniaceae Papuasiens. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 52: 139 – 166.Google Scholar
  97. ____ (1918). Bemerkung zu den Cunoniaceae papuanae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 55: 194.Google Scholar
  98. Schmidt, O. C. (1924). Cunoniaceae. Nova Guinea 14: 150.Google Scholar
  99. Shearman, P. L., Ash, J., Mackey, B., Bryan, J. E. & Lokes, B. (2009). Forest Conversion and Degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972 – 2002. Biotropica 41: 379 – 390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. SimpleMappr (published on the internet). http://www.simplemappr.net/ [accessed December 2015].
  101. van Steenis-Kruseman, M. J. (1950). Malaysian plant collectors and collections, being a cyclopaedia of botanical exploration in Malaysia. Flora Malesiana ser. I, 1: i – cxliv + 1 – 639.Google Scholar
  102. Stevens P. F. (1989). Floristic inventory of New Guinea. In: D. G. Campbell & D. Hammond (eds), Floristic inventory of tropical countries, pp. 120 – 132. New York Botanical Garden, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Stocker, G. C. & Irvine, A. K. (1983). Seed dispersal by cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) in North Queensland’s rainforests. Biotropica 15: 170 – 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Swain, E. H. F. (1928). The timbers and forest products of Queensland. Govt. Printer, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  105. Valeton, T. (1907). Tabula CCXXVIII. Schizomeria serrata Hochr. Icon. Bogor. 3: 69 – 70, + tab. 228.Google Scholar
  106. Waterhouse, R. D. (2001). Observations on the diet of the Topknot Pigeon Lopholaimus antarcticus in the Illawarra rainforest, New South Wales. Corella 25: 32 – 38.Google Scholar
  107. Webb, L. J. (1954). Aluminium accumulation in the Australian – New Guinea flora. Austral. J. Bot. 2: 176 – 196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Weberling, F. (1989). Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  109. White, C. M. N. (1975). The problem of the cassowary in Seran. Bull. B. O. C. 95: 165 – 170.Google Scholar
  110. White, F. (1962). Geographic variation and speciation in Africa with particular reference to Diospyros. In: D. Nichols (ed.), Taxonomy and geography. Systematics Association Publication no. 4: 71 – 103.Google Scholar
  111. Whitmore, T. C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon Islands. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  112. ____ (1967). Notes on the systematy of Solomon Islands’ plants and some of their New Guinea relatives, I – VII. Gard. Bull. Singapore 22: 1 – 21. (Schizomeria pp. 5 – 8).Google Scholar
  113. ____ (1969). The vegetation of the Solomon Islands. Philos. Trans. Ser. B 255: 259 – 270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wither, E. D. (1977). Biogeochemical studies in Southeast Asia by use of herbarium material. MSc Thesis, Massey University, New Zealand. (Original not seen, cited in Brooks 1987).Google Scholar
  115. Wright, D. D. (2005). Diet, keystone resources and altitudinal movement of dwarf cassowaries in relation to fruiting phenology in a Papua New Guinean rainforest. In: J. L. Dew & J. P. Boubli (eds), Tropical fruits and frugivores: the search for strong interactors, pp. 204 – 235. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Identification and Naming, Royal Botanic GardensRichmondUK

Personalised recommendations