Towards a monophyletic Licania: a new generic classification of the polyphyletic Neotropical genus Licania (Chrysobalanaceae)

Summary

Licania, currently the most species-rich genus of Chrysobalanaceae, is confined to the Neotropics, and is highly polyphyletic in molecular phylogenetic analyses. These studies show that the three subgenera of Licania, as well as sections within them, are not supported as monophyletic. Here we re-delimit the genus using a molecular phylogenetic analysis as a framework. We recognise the following eight genera: core Licania, Moquilea, Leptobalanus, Hymenopus, Microdesmia, Parinariopsis, Geobalanus; and Cordillera gen. nov. is described to accommodate Licania platycalyx. New combinations, as well as a description of each genus and a key to the species are provided, in addition to a key for all the Neotropical genera of the family, including those presented here. Chrysobalanaceae now comprise sixteen Neotropical genera and the redefined Licania, with c. 100 species, is then the second largest genus in the family after Hirtella (107 species).

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Acknowledgements

We thank Jérôme Chave and Léa Bardon for providing DNA and sequences of several Licania; Mike Hopkins for field support and silica-gel dried leaf material from Amazonia; Xander van der Burgt, Martin Cheek, Marie Briggs and Rogier de Kok for providing field collections and silica-gel dried material from Africa and Southeast Asia. For support in the Jodrell Laboratory we thank Jim Clarkson, Dion Devey, Laszlo Csiba and Edith Kapinos; Sue Zmarzty for ongoing support with Chrysobalanaceae in the K herbarium; Helen Fortune and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on an earlier draft of this paper.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1

ᅟ List of taxa used in the molecular analyses with an indication of markers obtained for each taxon. All DNA extracted from silica-gel dried leaf material, except those marked with an *, which were extracted from herbarium specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K). Taxa in bold represent additions to our analyses that were not included in Sothers 2010 or Sothers et al. 2014. For Licania s.l., species names from the previous classification are used.

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Sothers, C.A., Prance, G.T. & Chase, M.W. Towards a monophyletic Licania: a new generic classification of the polyphyletic Neotropical genus Licania (Chrysobalanaceae). Kew Bull 71, 58 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-016-9664-3

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Key Words

  • Cordillera
  • Geobalanus
  • Hymenopus
  • Leptobalanus
  • Malpighiales
  • Microdesmia
  • Moquilea
  • Neotropical flora
  • Parinariopsis