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Folia Geobotanica

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 265–276 | Cite as

Relict occurrences of boreal brown-moss quaking rich fens in the Carpathians and adjacent territories

  • Tomáš PeterkaEmail author
  • Michal Hájek
  • Daniel Dítě
  • Petra Hájková
  • Salza Palpurina
  • Irina Goia
  • Vít Grulich
  • Veronika Kalníková
  • Zuzana Plesková
  • Anna Šímová
  • Táňa Štechová
Article

Abstract

Quaking rich fens dominated by boreal semi-aquatic brown-mosses such as Scorpidium scorpioides and Calliergon trifarium are extremely rare in the Carpathians. These fens harbour endangered species persisting at few localities in the region. However, their phytosociological classification has not been sufficiently solved yet, because they lack Sphagnum species as well as calcicole species characteristic for the Caricion davallianae alliance. A recent pan-European synthesis on fen vegetation suggests that these fens belong to the Stygio-Caricion limosae alliance (boreal rich fen vegetation). The isolated occurrence of this alliance southward of the boreal zone and outside the Alps is rather exceptional and might represent a relict from an early post-glacial period. In this study, we compared phytosociological data for the Stygio-Caricion limosae alliance between Northern Europe and the Carpathians plus adjacent regions (the Bohemian Massif, the Dinaric Alps) using NMDS and cluster analysis. We found that the species composition of brown-moss quaking rich fens in Central and Southeastern Europe corresponds well with that in Northern Europe, confirming their assignment to Stygio-Caricion limosae. We further reconstructed the potential past distribution of the alliance in Czech Republic and Slovakia using available floristic and macrofossil data. Macrofossil data suggest that this vegetation type had been much more common in Central Europe and that today it persists only in ancient fens, showing the long-term stability of environmental conditions. The main causes of its present-day rarity are Middle-Holocene woodland phases in fens and recent water table decreases caused by anthropogenic deterioration of the water regime in the landscape.

Keywords

Classification Macrofossil Mires Plant communities Vegetation Wetlands 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was funded by the Czech Science Foundation (Centre of Excellence Pladias; 14-36079G) and Masaryk University (MUNI/A/1301/2016). The research of PH was partially supported by Czech Academy of Sciences (RVO 67985939). We are grateful to Kamil Rybníček (†) for providing unpublished vegetation plots. Our unpublished data from Romania were collected with the help of Veronika Horsáková and Michal Horsák. Many thanks go to Eva Hettenbergerová for management of the Macrofossil Database of the Czech Republic and Slovakia and for general support during the preparation of the manuscript. The co-ordinating editor and two anonymous reviewers provided important comments on the first draft of the paper.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomáš Peterka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michal Hájek
    • 1
  • Daniel Dítě
    • 2
  • Petra Hájková
    • 1
    • 3
  • Salza Palpurina
    • 1
  • Irina Goia
    • 4
  • Vít Grulich
    • 1
  • Veronika Kalníková
    • 1
  • Zuzana Plesková
    • 1
  • Anna Šímová
    • 1
  • Táňa Štechová
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Botany and ZoologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Plant Science and Biodiversity CenterSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Laboratory of Paleoecology, Institute of BotanyThe Czech Academy of SciencesBrnoCzech Republic
  4. 4.Department of Taxonomy and EcologyBabeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj NapocaRomania
  5. 5.Department of BotanyUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

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