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Bioethanol production from microalgae polysaccharides

  • Gergely Ernő LakatosEmail author
  • Karolína Ranglová
  • João Câmara Manoel
  • Tomáš Grivalský
  • Jiří Kopecký
  • Jiří Masojídek
Review
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

The worldwide growing demand for energy permanently increases the pressure on industrial and scientific community to introduce new alternative biofuels on the global energy market. Besides the leading role of biodiesel and biogas, bioethanol receives more and more attention as first- and second-generation biofuel in the sustainable energy industry. Lately, microalgae (green algae and cyanobacteria) biomass has also remarkable potential as a feedstock for the third-generation biofuel production due to their high lipid and carbohydrate content. The third-generation bioethanol production technology can be divided into three major processing ways: (i) fermentation of pre-treated microalgae biomass, (ii) dark fermentation of reserved carbohydrates and (iii) direct “photo-fermentation” from carbon dioxide to bioethanol using light energy. All three technologies provide possible solutions, but from a practical point of view, traditional fermentation technology from microalgae biomass receives currently the most attention. This study mainly focusses on the latest advances in traditional fermentation processes including the steps of enhanced carbohydrate accumulation, biomass pre-treatment, starch and glycogen downstream processing and various fermentation approaches.

Abbreviations

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl coenzyme A

ADHI, ADHII

Alcohol dehydrogenase I and II

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CBP

Consolidated bioprocess

CCM

Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism

DW

Dry mass

GRAS

Generally recognized as safe

PBRs

Photobioreactors

PDC

Pyruvate decarboxylase

PHB

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

PSI, II

Photosystem I, II

RuBisCO

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

SHF

Separate hydrolysis and fermentation

SSF

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

NaHCO3

Sodium bicarbonate

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Soňa Pekařová for the technical assistance and Dr. Kateřina Bišová for the discussion.

Author contribution statement

Gergely Lakatos took the leading role in the writing of the manuscript. Karolína Ranglová, Jiří Kopecký, Tomáš Grivalský and João Câmara Manoel contributed during the manuscript preparation. Jiří Masojídek revised and finalized the manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded partly by the National Sustainability Program of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (project Algatech Plus LO1416), and by cross-border InterReg projects between Austria and the Czech Republic (Algenetics No. ATCZ15) and Bavaria and the Czech Republic (CZ-BAV 41).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre Algatech, Laboratory of Algal BiotechnologyInstitute of MicrobiologyTřeboňCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

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