Bioethanol production from microalgae polysaccharides
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The worldwide growing demand for energy permanently increases the pressure on industrial and scientific community to introduce new alternative biofuels on the global energy market. Besides the leading role of biodiesel and biogas, bioethanol receives more and more attention as first- and second-generation biofuel in the sustainable energy industry. Lately, microalgae (green algae and cyanobacteria) biomass has also remarkable potential as a feedstock for the third-generation biofuel production due to their high lipid and carbohydrate content. The third-generation bioethanol production technology can be divided into three major processing ways: (i) fermentation of pre-treated microalgae biomass, (ii) dark fermentation of reserved carbohydrates and (iii) direct “photo-fermentation” from carbon dioxide to bioethanol using light energy. All three technologies provide possible solutions, but from a practical point of view, traditional fermentation technology from microalgae biomass receives currently the most attention. This study mainly focusses on the latest advances in traditional fermentation processes including the steps of enhanced carbohydrate accumulation, biomass pre-treatment, starch and glycogen downstream processing and various fermentation approaches.
Acetyl coenzyme A
- ADHI, ADHII
Alcohol dehydrogenase I and II
Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanism
Generally recognized as safe
- PSI, II
Photosystem I, II
Separate hydrolysis and fermentation
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation
The authors thank Ms. Soňa Pekařová for the technical assistance and Dr. Kateřina Bišová for the discussion.
Author contribution statement
Gergely Lakatos took the leading role in the writing of the manuscript. Karolína Ranglová, Jiří Kopecký, Tomáš Grivalský and João Câmara Manoel contributed during the manuscript preparation. Jiří Masojídek revised and finalized the manuscript.
This study was funded partly by the National Sustainability Program of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (project Algatech Plus LO1416), and by cross-border InterReg projects between Austria and the Czech Republic (Algenetics No. ATCZ15) and Bavaria and the Czech Republic (CZ-BAV 41).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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