Potential of the strain Raoultella sp. KDF8 for removal of analgesics
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The bacterial strain KDF8 capable of growth in the presence of diclofenac and codeine analgesics was obtained after chemical mutagenesis of nature isolates from polluted soils. The strain KDF8 was identified as Raoultella sp. based on its morphology, biochemical properties, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. It was deposited in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms under the number CCM 8678. A growing culture efficiently removed diclofenac (92% removal) and partially also codeine (about 30% degradation) from culture supernatants within 72 h at 28 °C. The degradation of six analgesics by the whole cell catalyst was investigated in detail. The maximum degradation of diclofenac (91%) by the catalyst was achieved at pHINI of 7 (1 g/L diclofenac). The specific removal rate at high concentrations of diclofenac and codeine increased up to 16.5 mg/gCDW per h and 5.1 mg/gCDW per h, respectively. HPLC analysis identified 4′-hydroxydiclofenac as a major metabolite of diclofenac transformation and 14-hydroxycodeinone as codeine transformation product. The analgesics ibuprofen and ketoprofen were also removed, albeit to a lower extent of 3.2 and 2.0 mg/gCDW per h, respectively. Naproxen and mefenamic acid were not degraded.
KeywordsMicrobial degradation Raoultella sp. Analgesics Co-metabolism Whole cell catalyst
The study was supported by the long-term research development project RVO 61388971 to the Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Epsilon programme TH02030337 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic and grant No. 720414 of the Grant Agency of Charles University, Prague.
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