Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 417–421 | Cite as

Decontamination by Persteril 36 may affect the reliability of DNA-based detection of biological warfare agents—short communication

  • Jirina Josefiova
  • Martin Pospisek
  • Daniel VanekEmail author


Persteril 36 is a disinfectant with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Because of its bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal effectiveness, it is used as a disinfectant against biological warfare agents in the emergency and army services. In case of an attack with potentially harmful biological agents, a person’s gear or afflicted skin is sprayed with a diluted solution of Persteril 36 as a precaution. Subsequently, the remains of the biological agents are analyzed. However, the question remains concerning whether DNA can be successfully analyzed from Persteril 36-treated dead bacterial cells. Spore-forming Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas campestris were splattered on a camouflage suit and treated with 2 or 0.2 % Persteril 36. After the disinfectant vaporized, the bacterial DNA was extracted and quantified by real-time PCR. A sufficient amount of DNA was recovered for downstream analysis only in the case of spore-forming B. subtilis treated with a 0.2 % solution of Persteril 36. The bacterial DNA was almost completely destroyed in Gram-negative bacteria or after treatment with the more concentrated solution in B. subtilis. This phenomenon can lead to false-negative results during the identification of harmful microorganisms.


Peracetic Acid Chlorine Dioxide Decontamination Procedure Neutralization Step Biological Warfare Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation, grant no. 14-36938G, and by the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic, grant VF20122015024.


  1. Alasri A, Roques C, Michel G, Cabassud C, Aptel P (1992) Bactericidal properties of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, alone and in combination, and chlorine and formaldehyde against bacterial water strains. Can J Microbiol 38:635–642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldry MGC (1983) The bactericidal, fungicidal and sporicidal properties of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. J Appl Bacteriol 54:417–423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Buhr T, Wells C, Young A, Minter Z, Johnson C, Payne A, McPherson D (2013) Decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid. J Appl Microbiol 115:398–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. CZ M (2006) Catalogue file of the typified activity of the integrated rescue system IZS STČ 05/IZS : finding of the object suspected to presence of B-agens or toxins. PragueGoogle Scholar
  5. Fernández A, Álvarez-Ordóñez A, López M, Bernardo A (2009) Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium. Food Microbiol 26:497–503. doi: 10.1016/ CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Flores MJ, Lescano MR, Brandi RJ, Cassano AE, Labas MD (2014) A novel approach to explain the inactivation mechanism of Escherichia coli employing a commercially available peracetic acid. Water Sci Technol 69:358–363. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.721 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kitis M (2004) Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: a review. Environ Int 30:47–55. doi: 10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00147-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kouba A, Kuklina I, Niksirat H, Máchová J, Kozák P (2012) Tolerance of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) to Persteril 36 supports use of peracetic acid in astaciculture. Aquaculture 350–353:71–74. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ludík T, Barta J (2011) Architecture for operational processes improvement in emergency management. Recent researches in computational intelligence and information security. WSEAS Press.Google Scholar
  10. Ludík T, Barta J, Navrátil J (2013) Design patterns for emergency management processes. In: World Academy of science, engineering and technology. Int J Soc, Behav, Educ, Econ, Bus Ind Eng 7:1749–1756Google Scholar
  11. Madsen AM, Zervas A, Tendal K, Nielsen JL (2015) Microbial diversity in bioaerosol samples causing ODTS compared to reference bioaerosol samples as measured using Illumina sequencing and MALDI-TOF. Environ Res 140:255–267. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. March JK et al (2015) The differential effects of heat-shocking on the viability of spores from Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium sporogenes after treatment with peracetic acid- and glutaraldehyde-based disinfectants. Microbiol Open 4:764–773. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Melichercikova V (1988) Disinfectant effect of Persteril in combination with detergents. J Hyg Epid Microb Im 33:19–28Google Scholar
  14. Park E, Lee C, Bisesi M, Lee J (2014) Efficiency of peracetic acid in inactivating bacteria, viruses, and spores in water determined with ATP bioluminescence, quantitative PCR, and culture-based methods. J Water Health 12:13–23. doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pazienza M et al (2014) Use of particle counter system for the optimization of sampling, identification and decontamination procedures for biological aerosols dispersion in confined environment. J Microbial Biotech 6:043–048. doi: 10.4172/1948-5948.1000120 Google Scholar
  16. Rokhina EV, Makarova K, Golovina EA, Van As H, Virkutyte J (2010) Free radical reaction pathway, thermochemistry of peracetic acid homolysis, and its application for phenol degradation: spectroscopic study and quantum chemistry calculations. Environ Sci Technol 44:6815–6821. doi: 10.1021/es1009136 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Setlow P (2006) Spores of Bacillus subtilis: their resistance to and killing by radiation, heat and chemicals. J Appl Microbiol 101:514–525. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02736.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sherry ST, Ward M-H, Kholodov M, Baker J, Phan L, Smigielski EM, Sirotkin K (2001) dbSNP: the NCBI database of genetic variation. Nucleic Acids Res 29:308–311CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Talbot SR, Russmann H, Köhne S, Niederwöhrmeier B, Grote G, Scheper T (2010) Effects of inactivation methods on the analysis of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores using real-time PCR and MALDI-TOF-MS. Eng Life Sci 10:109–120. doi: 10.1002/elsc.200800078 Google Scholar
  20. The Royal Society (2004) Making the UK safer: detecting and decontaminating chemical and biological agents. The Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25(24):4876–82CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Tran-Hung L, Tran-Thi N, Aboudharam G, Raoult D, Drancourt M (2007) A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria. PLoS ONE 2:e1062. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. UK Government Decontamination Service (2015) Strategic national guidance: the decontamination of buildings, infrastructure and open environment exposed to chemical, biological, radiological substances or nuclear (CBRN) materials. UK Government Decontamination Service, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Wood J, Calfee M, Clayton M, Griffin-Gatchalian N, Touati A, Egler K (2013) Evaluation of peracetic acid fog for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spore surrogates in a large decontamination chamber. J Hazard Mater 250–251:61–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhao X, Lin CW, Wang J, Oh DH (2014) Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens. J Microbiol Biotechn 24:297–312. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1310.10013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forensic DNA Service, s.r.o.Prague 7Czech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Biologicals s.r.o.RicanyCzech Republic
  4. 4.2nd Faculty of MedicineCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Nemocnice Na BulovceInstitute of Legal MedicinePrague 8Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations