Characterization of anthracene metabolites produced by Armillaria sp. F022 was performed in the enzymatic system. The fungal culture was conducted in 100-mL Erlenmeyer flask containing mineral salt broth medium (20 mL) and incubated at 120 rpm for 5–30 days. The culture broth was then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 45 min to obtain the extract. Additionally, the effect of glucose consumption, laccase activity, and biomass production in degradation of anthracene were also investigated. Approximately, 92 % of the initial concentration of anthracene was degraded within 30 days of incubation. Dynamic pattern of the biomass production was affected the laccase activity during the experiment. The biomass of the fungus increased with the increasing of laccase activity. The isolation and characterization of four metabolites indicated that the structure of anthracene was transformed by Armillaria sp. F022 in two routes. First, anthracene was oxidized to form anthraquinone, benzoic acid, and second, converted into other products, 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid and coumarin. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis also revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene was transformed by the action of the enzyme, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. The ligninolytic enzymes expecially free extracellular laccase played an important role in the transformation of anthracene during degradation period.
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A part of this research was financially supported by Research University Grant of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (no. QJ1.3000.2522.02H65).
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Hadibarata, T., Zubir, M.M.F.A., Rubiyatno et al. Degradation and transformation of anthracene by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022. Folia Microbiol 58, 385–391 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-013-0221-2
- Glucose Consumption
- Laccase Activity
- Phthalic Acid