Conductive polymer-coated threads as electrical interconnects in e-textiles

Abstract

An organic polymer electrical interconnect is demonstrated. The ionomer mixture poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS; 1:2.5, w:w) was cast onto silk fibers from a 50:50 (v:v) ethylene glycol solution by a dip-coating process. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results show that Young’s modulus and mechanical strength are maintained during the coating process from acidic solution (pH ∼1). DMA dynamic temperature scans reveal two new thermal transitions once PEDOT:PSS is applied to the silk fiber, and they are assigned to the glass transition temperature (59 °C) and melting point (146 °C) of the ionomer pair. Electrical conductivities of 8.5 S/cm were achieved with four cycles of the dip-coating process, only 10x less than Ag-coated thread control samples. SEM imaging of the PEDOT:PSS-coated fibers show slight texturing to the fibers due to the coating, as well as significant charging in the uncoated samples when compared to PEDOT:PSS-coated samples. The conductive fibers fabricated by this process were successfully applied as electrical interconnects in flexible, fully functional 555 timer circuits stitched into fabric substrates.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    A. Aleksandrowicz, N. Zimmermann, and T. Gries, Proc. Aachen-Dresden Int. Text. Conf., 1st, 141 (2007).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    T. Ghosh and A. Dhawan, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res., 31, 170 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    A. Sparavigna, A. R. Henn, and L. Florio, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys., 8, 1 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    S. Coyle, Y. Wu, K.-T. Lau, R. D. De, G. Wallace, and D. Diamond, MRS Bull., 32, 434 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    R. D. De, Nat. Mater., 6, 328 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    G. G. Wallace, T. E. Campbell, and P. C. Innis, Fiber. Polym., 8, 135 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. A. Sukeshini, R. Cummins, T. L. Reitz, and R. M. Miller, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 92, 2913 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    R. Vyas, V. Lakafosis, A. Rida, N. Chaisilwattana, S. Travis, J. Pan, and M. M. Tentzeris, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 57, 1370 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S. L.-C. Hsu and R.-T. Wu, Mater. Lett., 61, 3719 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    P. J. Smith, D. Y. Shin, J. E. Stringer, B. Derby, and N. Reis, J. Mater. Sci., 41, 4153 (2006).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    R. O. Kadara, N. Jenkinson, B. Li, K. H. Church, and C. E. Banks, Electrochem. Commun., 10, 1517 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    B. Li, P. A. Clark, and K. H. Church, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 1030E, 2008.

  13. 13.

    S. X. Jiang, W. F. Qin, R. H. Guo, and L. Zhang, Surf. Coat. Technol., 204, 3662 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    T. Onggar, H. Hund, R. D. Hund, and C. Cherif, Mater. Technol. (London, U. K.), 25, 106 (2010).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Q. Wei, D. Tao, B. Deng, and F. Huang, J. Ind. Text., 38, 309 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Anon, “Conducting Polymers a New Era in Electrochemistry by Gyorgy Inzelt”, 2009.

  17. 17.

    C. Kvarnstroem, “Conducting Polymers. A New Era in Electrochemistry edited by Fritz Scholz”, 2010.

  18. 18.

    N. S. Hush, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1006, 1 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    A. W. Hains, Z. Liang, M. A. Woodhouse, and B. A. Gregg, Chem. Rev. (Washington, DC, U. S.), ACS ASAP, 2010.

  20. 20.

    A. Facchtetti, Opt. Sci. Eng., 133, 287 (2008).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S. Kirchmeyer, K. Reuter, and J. C. Simpson, in “Handbook of Conducting Polymers”, 3rd ed. T. A. Skotheim and J. R. Reynolds, Eds.), pp.10/1, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M. Nikolou and G. G. Malliaras, Chem. Rec., 8, 13 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    A. Moujoud, S. H. Oh, H. S. Shin, and H. J. Kim, Phys. Status Solidi A, 207, 1704 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Y. Yim, J. Park, and B. Park, J. Disp. Technol., 6, 252 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    F. Zhang and O. Inganaes, Opt. Sci. Eng., 99, 479 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    K. Menard, “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis: A Practical Introduction to Techniques and Applications”, CRC, 1999.

  27. 27.

    D. Bowman and B. R. Mattes, Synth. Met., 154, 29 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    B. Kim, V. Koncar, and P. Bruniaux, J. Adv. Mater. (Covina, CA, U. S.), 38, 12 (2006).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    A. Soroudi and M. Skrifvars, Synth. Met., 160, 1143 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    P. Xue and X. M. Tao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 98, 1844 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    J. Ouyang, C.-W. Chu, F.-C. Chen, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, Adv. Funct. Mater., 15, 203 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    O. P. Dimitriev, D. A. Grinko, Y. V. Noskov, N. A. Ogurtsov, and A. A. Pud, Synth. Met., 159, 2237 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    W. Baik, W. Luan, R. H. Zhao, S. Koo, and K.-S. Kim, Synth. Met., 159, 1244 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Y. Xia and L. Yun, Compos. Sci. Technol., 68, 1471 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    H. Okuzaki, Y. Harashina, and H. Yan, Eur. Polym. J., 45, 256 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    M. A. Invernale, Y. Ding, and G. A. Sotzing, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2, 296 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Y. Ding, M. A. Invernale, and G. A. Sotzing, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2, 1588 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    T. Seydel, K. Koelln, I. Krasnov, I. Diddens, N. Hauptmann, G. Helms, M. Ogurreck, S.-G. Kang, M. M. Koza, and M. Mueller, Macromolecules, 40, 1035 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    O. Hakimi, D. P. Knight, F. Vollrath, and P. Vadgama, Composites, Part B, 38B, 324 (2007).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael D. Irwin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Irwin, M.D., Roberson, D.A., Olivas, R.I. et al. Conductive polymer-coated threads as electrical interconnects in e-textiles. Fibers Polym 12, 904 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-011-0904-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • e-textiles
  • Organic electronics
  • Conductive fibers
  • PEDOT:PSS
  • Intrinsically conducting polymers