Rendiconti Lincei

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 721–730 | Cite as

New biopolymer nanocomposites-based epoxidized palm oil/polybutylene succinate modified clay: preparation and characterization

  • Emad Abbas Jaffar Al-Mulla
  • Manar Ghyath Abd-Almutalib Al-Mosawy
  • Majed Jari Mohamad


Biodegradable polymers, such as polybutylene succinate (PBS), have attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community recently due to a rapid growth of intensive interest in the global environment for alternatives to petroleum-based polymeric materials. Chalcone (CH), hexadecylamine (HDA), and tetradecylamine (TDA) were used as one of organic compounds to modify natural clay (sodium montmorillonite). The clay modification was carried out by stirring the clay particles in an aqueous solution of CH-MMT, HDA-MMT and TDA-MMT increases from 1.27 to 1.51, 1.57 and 1.78 nm, respectively. The modified clay was then used in the preparation of the PBS/epoxidized palm oil (EPO) blend nanocomposites. They were prepared by incorporating 0.5–5% of CH-MMT, HDA-MMT and TDA-MMT. The interaction of the modifier in the clay layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The nanocomposites were synthesized by solution casting of the modified clay and a PBS/EPO blend at the weight ratio of 80/20, which has the highest increase in the tensile strength of the blend. The XRD, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the production of nanocomposites. PBS/EPO modified clay nanocomposites show higher thermal stability and significant improvement of comparison with those of the PBS/EPO blend.


Sodium montmorillonite Nanocomposites Surfactants Organic cations PBS EPO 


  1. Agag T, Takeichi T (2000) Polybenzoxazine–montmorillonite hybrid nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization. Polymer 41:7083–7089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Mulla EAJ (2011a) Preparation of polylactic acid/epoxidized palm oil/fatty nitrogen compounds modified clay nanocomposites by melt blending. Polym Sci Ser A 53(2):149–157. doi: 10.1134/S0965545X11020015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Mulla EAJ (2011b) Preparation of new polymer nanocomposites based on poly(lactic acid)/fatty nitrogen compounds modified clay by a solution casting process. Fibers Polym 12(4):444–450. doi: 10.1007/s12221-011-0444-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Mulla EAJ (2011c) Polylactic acid/epoxidized palm oil/fatty nitrogen compounds modified clay nanocomposites: preparation and characterization. Korean J Chem Eng 28(2):620–626. doi: 10.1007/s11814-010-0373-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Mulla EAJ (2011d) Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil. J Oleo Sci 60:41–45. doi: 10.5650/jos.60.41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Mulla EAJ, Yunus WMZ, Ibrahim NA, Rahman MZ (2009) Synthesis and characterization of N,Nʹ-carbonyl di fatty amide from palm oil. J Oleo Sci 58:467–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Mulla EAJ, Yunus WMZW, Ibrahim NAB, Rahman ZAM (2010a) Epoxidized palm oil plasticized polylactic acid/fatty nitrogen compound modified clay nanocomposites: preparation and characterization. Polym Polym Composites 18:451–459Google Scholar
  8. Al-Mulla EAJ, Yunus WMZW, Ibrahim NAB, Rahman ZAM (2010b) Properties of epoxidized palm oil plasticized polylactic acid. J Mater Sci 45:1942–1946. doi: 10.1007/s10853-009-4185-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Mulla EAJ, Yunus WMZW, Ibrahim NAB, Rahman ZAM (2010c) Di fatty acyl urea from corn oil: synthesis and characterization. J Oleo Sci 59:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Mulla EAJ, Suhail AH, Saadon AA (2011) Indust Crops Prod 33:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arroyo M, Lopez-Manchado M, Herrero B (2003) Organo-montmorillonite as substitute of carbon black in natural rubber compounds. Polymer 44:2447–2453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cho HS, Moon HS, Kim M, Nam K, Kim JY (2010) Biodegradability and biodegradation rate of poly(caprolactone)-starch blend and poly(butylene succinate) biodegradable polymer under aerobic and anaerobic environment. Waste Manag 31:475–480. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.10.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dean K, Yu L, Bateman S, Wu DY (2007) Gelatinized starch/biodegradable polyester blends: processing, morphology, and properties. J Appl Polym Sci 103(2):802–811. doi: 10.1002/app.25149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giannelis EP (1998) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: synthesis, properties and applications. Appl Organomet Chem 12:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giannelis EP, Krishnamoorti R, Manias E (1999) Polymer–silicate nanocomposites model systems for confined polymers and polymer brushes. Adv Polym Sci 138:107–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoidy WH, Ahmad MB, Al-Mulla EAJ, Yunus WMZ, Ibrahim NA (2010) Synthesis and characterization of fatty hydroxamic acids from triacylglycerides. J Oleo Sci 59:15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim DJ, Kim WS, Lee DH (2001) Modification of poly(butylene succinate) with peroxide: crosslinking, physical and thermal properties, and biodegradation. J Appl Polym Sci 81(5):1115–1124. doi: 10.1002/app.1534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kulinski Z, Piorkowska E (2005) Crystallization, structure and properties of plasticized poly(l-lactide). Polymer 46:10290–10300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu L, Yu J, Cheng L, Qu W (2009) Mechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) biocomposites reinforced with surface modified jute fibre. Composites Part A Appl Sci Manuf 40:669–674. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oishi A, Zhang M, Nakayama K, Masuda T, Taguchi Y (2006) Synthesis of poly(butylene succinate) and poly(ethylene succinate) including diglycollate moiety. Polym J 38(7):710–715. doi: 10.1295/polymj.PJ2005206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Park JW, Im SS (2002) Phase behavior and morphology in blends of poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(butylene succinate). J Appl Polym Sci 86:647–655. doi: 10.1002/app.10923 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paul MA, Alexandre M, Degée P, Henrist C, Rulmont A, Dubois P (2003) Nanocomposite materials based on plasticized poly(l-lactide) and organomodified montmorillonite: thermal and morphological study. Polymer 44:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pospisil M, Kalcndova A, Capkova P, Simonik J, Valaskova M (2004) Structure analysis of intercalated layer silicate: combination of molecular simulations and experiment. J Colloid Interface Sci 227:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Radhi MM, Al-Mulla EAJ (2015) Use of a grafted polymer electrode to study mercury ions by cyclic voltammetry. Res Chem Intermed 41:1413–1420. doi: 10.1007/s11164-013-1282-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reddy MM, Mohanty AK, Misra M (2012) Biodegradable blends from plasticized soy meal, polycaprolactone, and poly(butylene succinate). Macromol Mater Eng 297:455–463. doi: 10.1002/mame.201100203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ren Z, Dong L, Yang Y (2006a) Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of plasticized poly(lactic acid). J Appl Polym Sci 101:1583–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ren Z, Dong L, Yang Y (2006b) Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of plasticized poly(lactic acid). J Appl Polym Sci 101:1583–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sadiq SA, Atiyah EM, Numan AT, Sanak KA (2015) Synthesis and characterization of new bidentate chalcone ligand type (NO) and its MnII, CoII, NiII and CuII complexes with study of their antibacterial activity. Diyala J Pure Sci 11(3):2222–8373Google Scholar
  29. Shemmari FA, Rabah AAA (2014) Comparative study of different surfactants for natural rubber clay nanocomposite preparation. Rend Fis Acc Lincei 25:409–413. doi: 10.1007/s12210-014-0307-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sugihara S, Toshima K, Matsumura S (2006) New strategy for enzymatic synthesis of high-molecular-weight poly(butylene succinate) via cyclic oligomers. Macromol Rapid Commun 27:203–207. doi: 10.1002/marc.200500723 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xi Y, Martens W, He H, Frost RLJ (2005) Thermogravimetric analysis of organ clays intercalated with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. J Therm Anal Calorim 81:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yokohara T, Yamaguchi M (2008) Structure and properties for biomass based polyester blends of PLA and PBS. Eur Polym J 44:677–685. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zidelkheir B, Abdelgoad M (2008) Effect of surfactant agent upon the structure of montmorillonite. J Therm Anal Calorim 94:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emad Abbas Jaffar Al-Mulla
    • 1
  • Manar Ghyath Abd-Almutalib Al-Mosawy
    • 2
  • Majed Jari Mohamad
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Health and Medical TechniquesAl-Furat Al-Awsat Technical UniversityAl-KufaIraq
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of KufaAn-NajafIraq

Personalised recommendations