Transactions of Tianjin University

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 277–288 | Cite as

Numerical Prediction and Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics of Waterfall Scene for Application to Design Control

  • Chao Wang
  • Sherong Zhang
  • Yun Li
  • Guojin Zhu
  • Bohui Pang
  • Xiaofang Zheng
Research article


The hydraulic characteristics of artificial waterfalls constitute an important research area for both academia and industry. As yet, the hydraulic parameters used in the hydraulic design of landscape waterfalls are not well understood for use in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Due to their complicated shapes and appearances, it remains a challenging problem to design or simulate realistic waterfall scenes. In this paper, we present a hybrid model and an efficient numerical method for simulating the hydraulic characteristics of waterfalls and investigate the critical flow in waterfall design and the adherent flow phenomenon. We fit empirical equations to predict the size and shape of different waterfall flow patterns to provide a basis for the design and construction of waterscapes in the real world. We then apply our work to an artificial waterfall in Kraal Jiang River and the results demonstrate that our model achieves desirable control qualities and good agreement in a real-world application.


Artificial waterfall Nappe flow Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Weir flow Numerical simulation 



This study was supported by Tianjin Youth Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology (No. 15JCQNJC08000), the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51321065), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51509182) and Open Foundation from State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University (No. 2014491211).


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Copyright information

© Tianjin University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sherong Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yun Li
    • 4
  • Guojin Zhu
    • 4
  • Bohui Pang
    • 2
  • Xiaofang Zheng
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and SafetyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.HYDROCHINA Kunming Engineering CorporationKunmingChina

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