Skip to main content

Role of celebrity in cause related marketing

Abstract

Cause-related Marketing (CrM) has emerged as a rewarding strategy in developing nations for both brand and nonprofit organizations by changing the nature of corporate engagement in social causes. Celebrity endorsements have become popular in CrM in recent years, as they have always been with brand marketing in the past. In this study, we have developed a conceptual model to analyze the influence of celebrity credibility on the antecedents of cause-related marketing. A survey of literature showed that four antecedents - ‘celebrity-cause fit’, ‘celebrity brand fit’, ‘cause-brand fit’ and ‘brand credibility’ are important and were used in the study. Data were collected from 406 college students through a questionnaire-based survey. The results showed that celebrity credibility significantly influences all the antecedents of cause-related marketing and in turn influences outcome variables such as ‘attitude towards cause-related marketing’ and ‘purchase intention’. Celebrity-cause fit and cause-brand fit did not have significant influence on attitude towards cause-related marketing. Future research avenues and implications are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Amos, C., Holmes, G., & Strutton, D. (2008). Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness. International Journal of Advertising, 27(2), 209–234. doi:10.1080/02650487.2008.11073052.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. doi:10.1007/bf02723327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagozzi, R., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(1), 8–34. doi:10.1007/s11747-011-0278-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bergkvist, L., Hjalmarson, H., & Mägi, A. W. (2016). A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects. International Journal of Advertising, 35(2), 171–184. doi:10.1080/02650487.2015.1024384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bigne‐Alcaniz, E., Curras‐Perez, R., & Sanchez‐Garcia, I. (2009). Brand credibility in cause‐related marketing: the moderating role of consumer values. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(6), 437–447. doi:10.1108/10610420910989758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Branigan, E., & Mitsis, A. (2014). Reach for Generation Y: using celebrity endorsement to communicate about nonprofit causes with young people in Australia. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 19(4), 314–321. doi:10.1002/nvsm.1503.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bucklin, L. P., & Sengupta, S. (1993). Organizing successful Co-marketing alliances. Journal of Marketing, 57(2), 32. doi:10.2307/1252025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, A., Whitehead, M., & Breen, S. (2003). The naked truth of celebrity endorsement. British Food Journal, 105(4/5), 288–296. doi:10.1108/00070700310477086.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang, C.-T. (2008). To donate or not to donate? Product characteristics and framing effects of cause-related marketing on consumer purchase behavior. Psychology and Marketing, 25(12), 1089–1110. doi:10.1002/mar.20255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Company, T.N. (2015). The Sustainability Imperative. New York City, New York, United States.

  • Diana, S., & Bryan, A. L. (2007). The equity effect of product endorsement by celebrities: a conceptual framework from a co‐branding perspective. European Journal of Marketing, 41(1/2), 121–134. doi:10.1108/03090560710718148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edmondson, D.R., & Lafferty, B.A. (2007). Cause Related Marketing: A Model of Consumer’s Attitude toward the Cause-Brand Alliance. Distinguished Teaching Competition-Sponsored by Sherwin-Williams, 67, 20.

  • Edmondson, D. R., & Lafferty, B. A. (2014). A model of relevant antecedents and outcome variables for cause-related marketing. Journal of Management & Marketing Research, 14, 1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erdem, T., & Swait, J. (2004). Brand credibility, brand consideration, and choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 191–198. doi:10.1086/383434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Erdogan, B. Z. (1999). Celebrity endorsement: a literature review. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(4), 291–314. doi:10.1362/026725799784870379.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, H. H., Termini, S., & Washington, R. (1976). The effectiveness of advertisements utilizing four types of endorsers. Journal of Advertising, 5(3), 22–24. doi:10.1080/00913367.1976.10672647.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, H. H., Santeramo, M. J., & Traina, A. (1978). Correlates of trustworthiness for celebrities. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 6(4), 291–299. doi:10.1007/bf02732313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goksel, S. (2014). Celebrity endorsement: how it works when a celebrity fits the brand and advertisement. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 8(4), 1043–1051.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, R. E., Lafferty, B. A., & Newell, S. J. (2000). The impact of corporate credibility and celebrity credibility on consumer reaction to advertisements and brands. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 43–54. doi:10.1080/00913367.2000.10673616.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Govers, P. C., & Mugge, R. (2004). I love my jeep, because it’s tough like me’: The effect of product-personality congruence on product attachment. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Design and Emotion, Ankara, Turkey.

  • Gupta, S., & Pirsch, J. (2006). The company-cause-customer fit decision in cause-related marketing. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(6), 314–326. doi:10.1108/07363760610701850.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hajjat, M. M. (2003). Effect of cause-related marketing on attitudes and purchase intentions: the moderating role of cause involvement and donation size. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 11(1), 93–109. doi:10.1300/J054v11n01_07.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hou, J., Du, L., & Li, J. (2008). Cause’s attributes influencing consumer’s purchasing intention: empirical evidence from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(4), 363–380. doi:10.1108/13555850810909704.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hovland, C. I., & Weiss, W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15(4), 635. doi:10.1086/266350.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ilicic, J., & Baxter, S. (2014). Fit in celebrity–charity alliances: when perceived celanthropy benefits nonprofit organisations. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 19(3), 200–208. doi:10.1002/nvsm.1497.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kahle, L. R., & Homer, P. M. (1985). Physical attractiveness of the celebrity endorser: a social adaptation perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(4), 954–961. doi:10.2307/2489220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamins, M. A. (1990). An investigation into the “match-up” hypothesis in celebrity advertising: when beauty may be only skin deep. Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 4–13. doi:10.1080/00913367.1990.10673175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamins, M. A., & Gupta, K. (1994). Congruence between spokesperson and product type: a matchup hypothesis perspective. Psychology and Marketing, 11(6), 569–586. doi:10.1002/mar.4220110605.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keel, A., & Nataraajan, R. (2012). Celebrity endorsements and beyond: new avenues for celebrity branding. Psychology & Marketing, 29(9), 690–703. doi:10.1002/mar.20555.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keller, K. L., & Aaker, D. A. (1992). The effects of sequential introduction of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(1), 35. doi:10.2307/3172491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, Y.-J., & Na, J.-H. (2007). Effects of celebrity athlete endorsement on attitude towards the product: the role of credibility, attractiveness and the concept of congruence. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(4), 310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kropp, F., Holden, S. J. S., & Lavack, A. M. (1999). Cause-related marketing and values in Australia. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 4(1), 69–80. doi:10.1002/nvsm.57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafferty, B. A. (2007). The relevance of fit in a cause–brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 447–453. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.09.030.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafferty, B. A., & Edmondson, D. R. (2014). A note on the role of cause type in cause-related marketing. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1455–1460. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.07.021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lafferty, B. A., Goldsmith, R. E., & Newell, S. J. (2002). The dual credibility model: the influence of corporate and endorser credibility on attitudes and purchase intentions. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(3), 1–11. doi:10.1080/10696679.2002.11501916.

  • Lafferty, B. A., Goldsmith, R. E., & Hult, G. T. M. (2004). The impact of the alliance on the partners: a look at cause–brand alliances. Psychology & Marketing, 21(7), 509–531. doi:10.1002/mar.20017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, J.-G., & Thorson, E. (2008). The impact of celebrity-product incongruence on the effectiveness of product endorsement. Journal of Advertising Research, 48(3), 433–449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leiprecht, H. (2013). Giving a face to the good cause: The effects of celebrity endorsed cause-related marketing. University of Amsterdam.

  • Maathuis, O., Rodenburg, J., & Sikkel, D. (2004). Credibility, emotion or reason? Corporate Reputation Review, 6(4), 333–345. doi:10.1057/palgrave.crr.1540003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Magazine, F.I. (2016). 2015 Celebrity 100 List- Forbes India Magazine. http://forbesindia.com/lists/2015-celebrity-100/1519/all. Accessed 10/08/2016.

  • McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310–321. doi:10.2307/2489512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Myers, B., Kwon, W.-S., & Forsythe, S. (2012). Creating effective cause-related marketing campaigns: the role of cause-brand fit, campaign news source, and perceived motivations. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. doi:10.1177/0887302x12452339.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nunnelley, W.S. (2012). Cause related marketing: Understanding celebrity, consumer, and product fit relationships. dissertation, Auburn University.

  • Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers’ perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39–52. doi:10.2307/4188769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohanian, R. (1991). The impact of celebrity spokespersons’ perceived image on consumers’ intention to purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1), 46–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Mahony, S., & Meenaghan, T. (1997). The impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers. Irish Marketing Review, 10(2), 15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paswan, A. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling: An introduction. Dept. of Marketing and Logistics, COB, University of North Texas, USA.

  • Patel, J.D., Gadhavi, D.D., & Shukla, Y.S. (2016). Consumers’ responses to cause related marketing: moderating influence of cause involvement and skepticism on attitude and purchase intention. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 1–18, doi:10.1007/s12208-016-0151-1.

  • Ross, J. K., Patterson, L. T., & Stutts, M. A. (1992). Consumer perceptions of organizations that use cause-related marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 20(1), 93–97. doi:10.1007/bf02723480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Samman, E., Auliffe, E. M., & MacLachlan, M. (2009). The role of celebrity in endorsing poverty reduction through international aid. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14(2), 137–148. doi:10.1002/nvsm.339.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spry, A., Pappu, R., & Cornwell, T. B. (2011). Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity. European Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 882–909. doi:10.1108/03090561111119958.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Till, B. D. (1998). Using celebrity endorsers effectively: lessons from associative learning. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7(5), 400–409. doi:10.1108/10610429810237718.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Varadarajan, P. R., & Menon, A. (1988). Cause-related marketing: a coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 58. doi:10.2307/1251450.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wheeler, R. T. (2009). Nonprofit advertising: impact of celebrity connection, involvement and gender on source credibility and intention to volunteer time or donate money. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 21(1), 80–107. doi:10.1080/10495140802111984.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wymer, W. W., & Samu, S. (2003). Dimensions of business and nonprofit collaborative relationships. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 11(1), 3–22. doi:10.1300/J054v11n01_02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiaoli, N., & Heo, K. (2007). Consumer Responses to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Initiatives: examining the role of brand-cause fit in cause-related marketing. Journal of Advertising, 36(2), 63–74. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367360204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Youn, S., & Kim, H. (2008). Antecedents of consumer attitudes toward cause-related marketing. Journal of Advertising Research, 48(1), 123–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Thamaraiselvan.

Appendix

Appendix

Trustworthiness:

The celebrity endorser is [honest].

The celebrity endorser is [reliable].

The celebrity endorser is [trustworthy].

The celebrity endorser is [dependable].

The celebrity endorser is [sincere].

Attractiveness:

The celebrity endorser is [attractive].

The celebrity endorser is [classy].

The celebrity endorser is [elegant].

The celebrity endorser is [sexy].

Expertise:

The celebrity endorser is [experienced].

The celebrity endorser is [knowledgeable].

The celebrity endorser is [qualified].

The celebrity endorser is [expert].

Celebrity-brand fit:

It is very logical for the celebrity to endorse the [Brand].

This celebrity is very appropriate to endorse the [Brand].

The [Brand] matched with the celebrity personality.

Celebrity and [Brand] represent each other well.

Celebrity and [Brand] fit together well.

Celebrity-cause fit:

It is very logical for the celebrity to endorse the [Cause].

This celebrity is very appropriate to endorse the [Cause].

The [Cause] matched with the celebrity personality.

Celebrity and [Cause] represent each other well

Celebrity and [Cause] fit together well.

Cause-brand fit:

[Brand] and the [Cause] are consistent with each other.

[Brand] and the [Cause] together is a typical match.

[Brand] and the [Cause] represent each other well.

[Brand] and the [Cause] complement each other.

[Brand] and the [Cause] fit together well.

[Brand] and the [Cause] together make sense.

Attitude towards CrM:

I like buying products which donate part of their profits to a charitable cause.

I am willing to pay more for a product if the manufacturer is donating part of the profits to charity.

If a company is donating part of its profits to a charity then I am more likely to buy its products.

Companies who advertise that they are donating part of their profits to charity are good corporate citizens.

I make a special effort to buy from companies that support charitable causes.

Brand Credibility:

This [Brand] has the ability to deliver what it promises.

This [Brand] delivers what it promises.

This [Brand] product claims are believable.

This [Brand] has a name you can trust.

This [Brand] doesn’t pretend to be something it isn’t.

Purchase Intention:

I am eager to learn more about this product which is related to a campaign for a cause.

I am likely to participate in a campaign for a cause by purchasing the product.

I would be willing to influence others to purchase this cause-related product.

I would be willing to purchase this cause- related product.

I would consider purchasing from this firm which donates to a cause in order to help it.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Thamaraiselvan, N., Arasu, B.S. & Inbaraj, J.D. Role of celebrity in cause related marketing. Int Rev Public Nonprofit Mark 14, 341–357 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12208-017-0176-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12208-017-0176-0

Keywords

  • Cause-related marketing
  • Celebrity credibility
  • Brand credibility
  • Purchase Intention
  • Celebrity-cause fit
  • Celebrity brand fit