Skip to main content

From Subjective Cognitive Decline to Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: Clinical and Capacity Assessment Considerations

Abstract

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent condition with major implications for both society as a whole and on an individual level. The progression from MCI to dementia as part of the Alzheimer’s continuum has been widely studied. This progression is considered as an intermediate clinical stage from normal aging for many individuals before meeting full criteria for dementia. The identification of predictive factors continues to be studied with evidence suggesting that early prevention, rather than treatment per se, is the current most productive focus of research. However, comorbid old-age related conditions (e.g., vestibular dysfunction) and neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression can significantly confound identification of MCI in the absence of biomarkers and can also increase the risk of progression to dementia. Additionally, subjective cognitive decline (SCD) can be present in depression, which can complicate and obfuscate differential diagnosis. Notably, in the context of forensic psychological assessment, whether cognitive change is due to brain injury resulting from progressive multifaceted neurodegenerative condition or not has medico-legal implications. Moreover, the validity and reliability of collateral information also play a significant role in forensic settings. Hence, the neuropsychological assessment is uniquely placed to appropriately assess cognitive and psychological changes that can occur in the individual and impair functioning. Consequently, recommendations for best practice in the assessment of MCI in the older adult population are provided.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Albert, M. S., DeKosky, S. T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Fox, N. C., Gamst, A., Holtzman, D. M., Jagust, W. J., Petersen, R. C., Snyder, P. J., Carrillo, M. C., Thies, B., & Phelps, C. H. (2011, May). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 7(3), 270–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.008

  • Albert, S. M., Tabert, M. H., Dienstag, A., Pelton, G., & Devanand, D. (2002, Feb). The impact of mild cognitive impairment on functional abilities in the elderly. Current Psychiatry Reports, 4(1), 64–68. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11814398

  • Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C., & Shamoian, C. A. (1988, Feb 1). Cornell scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 271–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(88)90038-8

  • Allegri, R. F., Taragano, F. E., Krupitzki, H., Serrano, C. M., Dillon, C., Sarasola, D., Feldman, M., Tufro, G., Martelli, M., & Sanchez, V. (2010, Jan-Mar). Role of cognitive reserve in progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 4(1), 28–34. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642010DN40100005

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Neurocognitive disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association (APA).

  • American Psychological Association. (2012). Guidelines for the evaluation of dementia and age-related cognitive change. American Psychologist, 67(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association: APA Task Force for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Change. (2021). Guidelines for the Evaluation of Dementia and Age-Related Cognitive Change. https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/

  • Banerjee, S., Willis, R., Matthews, D., Contell, F., Chan, J., & Murray, J. (2007). Improving the quality of care for mild to moderate dementia: An evaluation of the Croydon Memory Service Model. Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(8), 782–788. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1741

  • Bartley, M., Bokde, A. L., Ewers, M., Faluyi, Y. O., Tobin, W. O., Snow, A., Connolly, J., Delaney, C., Coughlan, T., Collins, D. R., Hampel, H., & O'Neill, D. (2012, Aug). Subjective memory complaints in community dwelling healthy older people: The influence of brain and psychopathology. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(8), 836–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2794

  • Bentz, B. G., & Hall, J. R. (2008). Assessment of depression in a geriatric inpatient cohort: A comparison of the BDI and GDS. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8(1), 93–104. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2008-01196-007&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

  • Bondi, M. W., Edmonds, E. C., Jak, A. J., Clark, L. R., Delano-Wood, L., McDonald, C. R., Nation, D. A., Libon, D. J., Au, R., Galasko, D., & Salmon, D. P. (2014). Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment improves diagnostic precision, biomarker associations, and progression rates. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 42(1), 275–289. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-140276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonin-Guillaume, S., Clement, J. P., Chassain, A. P., & Leger, J. M. (1995, Jan-Feb). [Psychometric evaluation of depression in the elderly subject: Which instruments? What are the future perspectives?] [Review]. L'Encephale, 21(1), 25–34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7720619 (Evaluation psychometrique de la depression du sujet age: quels instruments? Quelles perspectives d'avenir?).

  • Boone, K. B., & Ebooks, C. (2013). Clinical practice of forensic neuropsychology: An evidence-based approach (1 ed.). Guilford Press.

  • Broadbent, D. E., Cooper, P. F., FitzGerald, P., & Parkes, K. R. (1982, Feb). The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1982.tb01421.x

  • Brown, L. M., & Schinka, J. A. (2005, Oct). Development and initial validation of a 15-item informant version of the geriatric depression scale [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Validation Studies]. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(10), 911–918. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1375

  • Buckley, R. F., Saling, M. M., Frommann, I., Wolfsgruber, S., & Wagner, M. (2015). Subjective cognitive decline from a phenomenological perspective: A review of the qualitative literature. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease: JAD, 48(Suppl 1), S125–S140. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-150095

  • Budson, A. E., & Solomon, P. R. (2021). Memory loss, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia: A practical guide for clinicians (3rd ed.). Elsevere.

  • Burns, A., Lawlor, B., & Craig, S. (2002, Feb). Rating scales in old age psychiatry [Review]. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 161–167. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11823329

  • Chang, Y. P., Edwards, D. F., & Lach, H. W. (2011, Aug). The Collateral Source version of the geriatric depression scale: evaluation of psychometric properties and discrepancy between collateral sources and patients with dementia in reporting depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(6), 961–968. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211000147

  • Chu, C. S., Sun, I. W., Begum, A., Liu, S. I., Chang, C. J., Chiu, W. C., Chen, C. H., Tang, H. S., Yang, C. L., Lin, Y. C., Chiu, C. C., & Stewart, R. (2017). The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression. PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0173027. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173027

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, D., Schultz, I. Z., Sepehry, A. A., & Stewart, A. M. (2019). Assessment of competence in older adults. In R. J. Gatchel, I. Z. Schultz, & C. T. Ray (Eds.), Handbook of Rehabilitation in Older Adults (pp. 433–459). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03916-5

  • Cohen, H. S., Wells, J., Kimball, K. T., & Owsley, C. (2003). Driving disability and dizziness. Journal of Safety Research, 34(4), 361–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2003.09.009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crook, T. H., 3rd, Feher, E. P., & Larrabee, G. J. (1992, Fall). Assessment of memory complaint in age-associated memory impairment: The MAC-Q. International Psychogeriatrics, 4(2), 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1041610292000991

  • Devi, G. (2018, Mar 22). Alzheimer’s disease in physicians - assessing professional competence and tempering stigma. New England Journal of Medicine, 378(12), 1073–1075. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1716381

  • Eckerstrom, M., Skoogh, J., Rolstad, S., Gothlin, M., Steineck, G., Johansson, B., & Wallin, A. (2013, Mar). Sahlgrenska academy self-reported cognitive impairment questionnaire (SASCI-Q)--A research tool discriminating between subjectively cognitively impaired patients and healthy controls. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(3), 420–430. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610212001846

  • Elbulok-Charcape, M. M., Rabin, L. A., Spadaccini, A. T., & Barr, W. B. (2014, Jul). Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: A survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(3), 353–361. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035023

  • Engedal, K., Barca, M. L., Laks, J., & Selbaek, G. (2011, Sep). Depression in Alzheimer’s disease: Specificity of depressive symptoms using three different clinical criteria. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(9), 944–951. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2631

  • Farias, S. T., Mungas, D., Reed, B. R., Cahn-Weiner, D., Jagust, W., Baynes, K., & Decarli, C. (2008, Jul). The measurement of everyday cognition (ECog): Scale development and psychometric properties. Neuropsychology, 22(4), 531–544. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.22.4.531

  • Feldman, H., Scheltens, P., Scarpini, E., Hermann, N., Mesenbrink, P., Mancione, L., Tekin, S., Lane, R., & Ferris, S. (2004, Apr 13). Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 62(7), 1199–1201. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000118301.92105.ee

  • Fraser, E. E., Downing, M. G., Biernacki, K., McKenzie, D. P., & Ponsford, J. L. (2019, Oct 1). Cognitive reserve and age predict cognitive recovery after mild to severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 36(19), 2753–2761. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2019.6430

  • Fujii, D. E. M. (2018, 2018/11/17). Developing a cultural context for conducting a neuropsychological evaluation with a culturally diverse client: The ECLECTIC framework. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 32(8), 1356–1392. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2018.1435826

  • Gass, C. S., Patten, B., Penate, A., & Rhodes, A. (2021). The Cognitive Difficulties Scale (CDS): Psychometric characteristics in a clinical referral sample. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 27(4), 351–364.

  • Gauthier. S, Rosa-Neto, P., Morais, J. A., & Webster, C. (2021). World Alzheimer Report 2021: Journey through the diagnosis of dementia. Alzheimer’s Disease International.

  • Giau, V. V., Bagyinszky, E., & An, S. S. A. (2019, Aug 25). Potential fluid biomarkers for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(17), 4149. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174149

  • Gotlib, I. H., & Hammen, C. L. (2009). Handbook of depression (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

  • Greene, R. D., Cook, A., Nowaskie, D., & Wang, S. (2020, May). Neurological changes and depression: 2020 update. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 36(2), 297–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2019.11.009

  • Hendrie, H. C., Hall, K. S., Brittain, H. M., Austrom, M. G., Farlow, M., Parker, J., & Kane, M. (1988, May). The CAMDEX: A standardized instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly: A replication with a US sample. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36(5), 402–408. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3361042

  • Hermida, A. P., McDonald, W. M., Steenland, K., & Levey, A. (2012, Nov). The association between late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment and dementia: Is inflammation the missing link? Expert Review Neurotherapeutics, 12(11), 1339–1350. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.127

  • Hill, N. L., Mogle, J. M., Munoz, E., Wion, R., & Colancecco, E. M. (2015, Apr). Assessment of subjective cognitive impairment among older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(4), 28–35; quiz 36–27. https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20150309-01

  • Hsu, D. C., & Ellison, J. M. (2017). Mild Cognitive Impairment: Impact on medical-legal In J. Holzer, R. Kohn, J. Ellison, & P. Recupero (Eds.), Geriatric forensic psychiatry: Principles and practice (pp. 275–282). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199374656.003.0032

  • Hubley, A. M., Mangaoang, M., Burke, S., Ho, C., Ang, P., Myers, S., & Chiu, D. (2009, August 6–9). Validation of a new screen for depression in older adults. American Psychological Association (APA), Toronto, ON, Canada.

  • Houston, W. S., & Bondi, M. W. (2006). Potentially reversible cognitive symptoms in older adults. In D. K. Attix & K. A. Welsh-Bohmer (Eds.), Geriatric neuropsychology: Assessment and intervention (1st ed., pp. 103–130). The Guilford Press.

  • Huthwaite, J. S., Martin, R. C., Griffith, H. R., Anderson, B., Harrell, L. E., & Marson, D. C. (2006). Declining medical decision-making capacity in mild AD: A two-year longitudinal study. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24(4), 453–463. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.701

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ismail, Z., Aguera-Ortiz, L., Brodaty, H., Cieslak, A., Cummings, J., Fischer, C. E., Gauthier, S., Geda, Y. E., Herrmann, N., Kanji, J., Lanctot, K. L., Miller, D. S., Mortby, M. E., Onyike, C. U., Rosenberg, P. B., Smith, E. E., Smith, G. S., Sultzer, D. L., Lyketsos, C., Research, N. P. S. P. I. A. o. t. I. S. o. t. A. A. s., & Treatment. (2017). The mild behavioral impairment checklist (MBI-C): A rating scale for neuropsychiatric symptoms in pre-dementia populations. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 56(3), 929–938. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160979

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ismail, Z., McGirr, A., Gill, S., Hu, S., Forkert, N. D., & Smith, E. E. (2021). Mild behavioral impairment and subjective cognitive decline predict cognitive and functional decline. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 80(1), 459–469. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201184

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Jack, C. R., Jr., Bennett, D. A., Blennow, K., Carrillo, M. C., Dunn, B., Haeberlein, S. B., Holtzman, D. M., Jagust, W., Jessen, F., Karlawish, J., Liu, E., Molinuevo, J. L., Montine, T., Phelps, C., Rankin, K. P., Rowe, C. C., Scheltens, P., Siemers, E., Snyder, H. M., Sperling, R., & Contributors. (2018, Apr). NIA-AA research framework: Toward a biological definition of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dementia, 14(4), 535–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.02.018

  • Jak, A. J., Bondi, M. W., Delano-Wood, L., Wierenga, C., Corey-Bloom, J., Salmon, D. P., & Delis, D. C. (2009, May). Quantification of five neuropsychological approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(5), 368–375. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31819431d5

  • Jak, A. J., Preis, S. R., Beiser, A. S., Seshadri, S., Wolf, P. A., Bondi, M. W., & Au, R. (2016, Oct). Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment and dementia risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22(9), 937–943. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617716000199

  • Jefferson, A. L., Lambe, S., Moser, D. J., Byerly, L. K., Ozonoff, A., & Karlawish, J. H. (2008, Jul). Decisional capacity for research participation in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56(7), 1236–1243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01752.x

  • Jenkins, A., Tree, J. J., Thornton, I. M., & Tales, A. (2019). Subjective cognitive impairment in 55–65-year-old adults is associated with negative affective symptoms, neuroticism, and poor quality of life. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 67(4), 1367–1378. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180810

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jessen, F., Amariglio, R. E., Buckley, R. F., van der Flier, W. M., Han, Y., Molinuevo, J. L., Rabin, L., Rentz, D. M., Rodriguez-Gomez, O., Saykin, A. J., Sikkes, S. A. M., Smart, C. M., Wolfsgruber, S., & Wagner, M. (2020, Mar). The characterisation of subjective cognitive decline. Lancet Neurology, 19(3), 271–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30368-0

  • Jessen, F., Amariglio, R. E., van Boxtel, M., Breteler, M., Ceccaldi, M., Chetelat, G., Dubois, B., Dufouil, C., Ellis, K. A., van der Flier, W. M., Glodzik, L., van Harten, A. C., de Leon, M. J., McHugh, P., Mielke, M. M., Molinuevo, J. L., Mosconi, L., Osorio, R. S., Perrotin, A., Petersen, R. C., Rabin, L. A., Rami, L., Reisberg, B., Rentz, D. M., Sachdev, P. S., de la Sayette, V., Saykin, A. J., Scheltens, P., Shulman, M. B., Slavin, M. J., Sperling, R. A., Stewart, R., Uspenskaya, O., Vellas, B., Visser, P. J., Wagner, M., & Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative Working, G. (2014, Nov). A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dementia, 10(6), 844–852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.001

  • Kuhn, E., Perrotin, A., Tomadesso, C., Andre, C., Sherif, S., Bejanin, A., Touron, E., Landeau, B., Mezenge, F., Vivien, D., De La Sayette, V., Chetelat, G., & Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging, I. (2021). Subjective cognitive decline: Opposite links to neurodegeneration across the Alzheimer’s continuum. Brain Commun, 3(3), fcab199. https://doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab199

  • Lindau, M., & Bjork, R. (2014, Sep-Dec). Anosognosia and anosodiaphoria in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 4(3), 465–480. https://doi.org/10.1159/000369132

  • Mackinnon, A., Christensen, H., Cullen, J. S., Doyle, C. J., Henderson, A. S., Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., & Scott, L. R. (1993, Feb). The Canberra Interview for the Elderly: assessment of its validity in the diagnosis of dementia and depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87(2), 146–151. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8447242

  • Makizako, H., Shimada, H., Doi, T., Tsutsumimoto, K., Hotta, R., Nakakubo, S., Makino, K., & Suzuki, T. (2016, Oct 18). Comorbid mild cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms predict future dementia in community older adults: A 24-month follow-up longitudinal study. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 54(4), 1473–1482. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160244

  • Manly, J. J. (2008). Critical issues in cultural neuropsychology: Profit from diversity. Neuropsychology Review, 18(3), 179–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-008-9068-8

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Marson, D. C., Cody, H. A., Ingram, K. K., & Harrell, L. E. (1995, Oct). Neuropsychologic predictors of competency in Alzheimer's disease using a rational reasons legal standard. Archives of Neurology, 52(10), 955-959. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1995.00540340035011

  • Marson, D., Dymek, M., & Geyer, J. (2001, Nov). Informed consent, competency, and the neurologist. Neurologist, 7(6), 317–326. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12803662

  • Marson, D. C., Hawkins, L., McInturff, B., & Harrell, L. E. (1997, Apr). Cognitive models that predict physician judgments of capacity to consent in mild Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45(4), 458–464. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb05171.x

  • Marson, D. C., Hebert, K., & Solomon, A. C. (2012). Assessing civil competencies in older adults with dementia. In G. J. Larrabee (Ed.), Forensic Neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 401–437). Oxford University Press.

  • Marson, D. C., Martin, R. C., Wadley, V., Griffith, H. R., Snyder, S., Goode, P. S., Kinney, F. C., Nicholas, A. P., Steele, T., Anderson, B., Zamrini, E., Raman, R., Bartolucci, A., & Harrell, L. E. (2009, May). Clinical interview assessment of financial capacity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(5), 806–814. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02202.x

  • Martin, R., Griffith, H. R., Belue, K., Harrell, L., Zamrini, E., Anderson, B., Bartolucci, A., & Marson, D. (2008, Mar). Declining financial capacity in patients with mild Alzheimer disease: A one-year longitudinal study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(3), 209–219. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e318157cb00

  • McDonald, A. (2015). Assessing the robustness of the test of premorbid functioning (topf) as a measure of premorbid intelligence in Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia, and clinical research portfolio (Publication Number Dissertation/Thesis) ProQuest Dissertations Publishing U6 -Dissertation]. http://ubc.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwpV3JTsMwEB1BuSAOgACxFDQSB0AikK3EPSEEFD6Ae-XEjhrUxmmSXvgr_hCPE4s2SL1wS5w9tt6M5808AwT-net0MCHhEUsDz5Pa4ohIuiLh2pENfBkLlj4kUSdV58mWxrTdbVHSQLdQCUXN772IEefms8FjMXdoHSniW9tFNTZhiwgyGvNvvvsHaI31GO3Cp32QTRvpVPWtSjP-6432YOdliWLfhw2ZH8B3w-1qM4Xa4cNSxYuqJpBDlZoW7XDWtF2UlHkbZwLJ4LXBWryuVZHeIK-Q46wJKq6enC0Je-od5NOvicxmsrzSl-QCbb4rChONzPitabZlmdhKDk2QZgOpmmbqEC5Hrx_P7479BeN21Ffj3-8PjqCXq1weA4YiZDIkncEw0HOdcOgLEoFJhMdiyYbhCfTX3el0_eEz2NYuzKAJivShV5cLeW4UFC5Mz_8Az_TOaA

  • McLennan, J. (1999). Assessment and service responses for younger people with dementia: A medical overview. In S. Cox & J. Keady (Ed.) Younger people with dementia: Planning, practice and development (pp. 17-36). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

  • McNair, D. M., & Kahn, R. J. (1983). Self-assessment of cognitive deficits. Assessment in Geriatric Psychopharmacology, 137, 143.

  • Mitchell, A. J., Beaumont, H., Ferguson, D., Yadegarfar, M., & Stubbs, B. (2014, Dec). Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: Meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 130(6), 439–451. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.12336

  • Moelter, S., Clark, C., Xie, S. X., Glenn, M., Chittams, J., & Arnold, S. (2012). Detecting reliable change in cognitive and functional measures of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: THe Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 8(4), P634. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2012.05.1691

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moye, J., Karel, M. J., Gurrera, R. J., & Azar, A. R. (2006, Jan). Neuropsychological predictors of decision-making capacity over 9 months in mild-to-moderate dementia. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(1), 78–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00288.x

  • Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bedirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., Cummings, J. L., & Chertkow, H. (2005, Apr). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment [Evaluation Studies]. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x

  • Okonkwo, O., Griffith, H. R., Belue, K., Lanza, S., Zamrini, E. Y., Harrell, L. E., Brockington, J. C., Clark, D., Raman, R., & Marson, D. C. (2007, Oct 9). Medical decision-making capacity in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 69(15), 1528–1535. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000277639.90611.d9

  • Olin, J. T., Schneider, L. S., Eaton, E. M., Zemansky, M. F., & Pollock, V. E. (1992). The geriatric depression scale and the Beck Depression Inventory as screening instruments in an older adult outpatient population. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 190–192. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.4.2.190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olin, J. T., Schneider, L. S., Katz, I. R., Meyers, B. S., Alexopoulos, G. S., Breitner, J. C., Bruce, M. L., Caine, E. D., Cummings, J. L., Devanand, D. P., Jeste, D. V., Krishnan, K. R., Lyketsos, C. G., Lyness, J. M., Rabins, P. V., Iii, C. F., Rovner, B. W., Steffens, D. C., Unutzer, J., & Lebowitz, B. D. (2003a, Jan). Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer’s disease: Description and review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 3(1), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.3.1.99

  • Olin, J. T., Schneider, L. S., Katz, I. R., Meyers, B. S., Alexopoulos, G. S., Breitner, J. C., Bruce, M. L., Caine, E. D., Cummings, J. L., Devanand, D. P., Jeste, D. V., Krishnan, K. R., Lyketsos, C. G., Lyness, J. M., Rabins, P. V., Reynolds, C. F., III, Rovner, B. W., Steffens, D. C., Unutzer, J., & Lebowitz, B. D. (2003b, Jan). Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer’s disease: Description and review. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 3(1), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1586/14737175.3.1.99

  • Palmer, B. W., Ryan, K. A., Kim, H. M., Karlawish, J. H., Appelbaum, P. S., & Kim, S. Y. (2013, Apr). Neuropsychological correlates of capacity determinations in Alzheimer disease: Implications for assessment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(4), 373–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2012.11.008

  • Pendlebury, S. T., Mariz, J., Bull, L., Mehta, Z., & Rothwell, P. M. (2013). Impact of different operational definitions on mild cognitive impairment rate and MMSE and MoCA performance in transient ischaemic attack and stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 36(5–6), 355–362. https://doi.org/10.1159/000355496

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, R. C. (2004, Sep). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 183–194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01388.x

  • Petersen, R. C., Doody, R., Kurz, A., Mohs, R. C., Morris, J. C., Rabins, P. V., Ritchie, K., Rossor, M., Thal, L., & Winblad, B. (2001, Dec). Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 58(12), 1985–1992. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.58.12.1985

  • Petersen, R. C., Lopez, O., Armstrong, M. J., Getchius, T. S. D., Ganguli, M., Gloss, D., Gronseth, G. S., Marson, D., Pringsheim, T., Day, G. S., Sager, M., Stevens, J., & Rae-Grant, A. (2018, Jan 16). Practice guideline update summary: Mild cognitive impairment: Report of the guideline development, dissemination, and implementation subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 90(3), 126–135. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004826

  • Petersen, R. C., & Negash, S. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment: an overview. CNS Spectrums, 13(1), 45-53.

  • Petersen, R. C., Wiste, H. J., Weigand, S. D., Fields, J. A., Geda, Y. E., Graff-Radford, J., Knopman, D. S., Kremers, W. K., Lowe, V., Machulda, M., Mielke, M., Stricker, N. H., Therneau, T. M., Vemuri, P., & Jack, C. R., Jr. (2021, Mar 26). NIA-AA Alzheimer’s disease framework: Clinical characterization of stages. Annals of Neurology, 89(6), 1145–1156. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.26071

  • Portugal Mda, G., Coutinho, E. S., Almeida, C., Barca, M. L., Knapskog, A. B., Engedal, K., & Laks, J. (2012, Aug). Validation of Montgomery-Asberg rating scale and Cornell scale for depression in dementia in Brazilian elderly patients. International Psychogeriatrics, 24(8), 1291–1298. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211002250

  • Rami, L., Bosch, B., Sanchez-Valle, R., & Molinuevo, J. L. (2010, Mar-Apr). The memory alteration test (M@T) discriminates between subjective memory complaints, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 50(2), 171–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2009.03.005

  • Rami, L., Bosch, B., Valls-Pedret, C., Caprile, C., Sanchez-Valle Diaz, R., & Molinuevo, J. L. (2009, Aug 16–31). [Discriminatory validity and association of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) with a neuropsychological battery in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease]. Revista de Neurologia, 49(4), 169–174. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19621317 (Validez discriminativa y asociacion del test minimental (MMSE) y del test de alteracion de memoria (T@M) con una bateria neuropsicologica en pacientes con deterioro cognitivo leve amnesico y enfermedad de Alzheimer.).

  • Rami, L., Molinuevo, J. L., Sanchez-Valle, R., Bosch, B., & Villar, A. (2007, Apr). Screening for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease with M@T (memory alteration test) in the primary care population. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(4), 294–304. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1672

  • Rami, L., Mollica, M. A., Garcia-Sanchez, C., Saldana, J., Sanchez, B., Sala, I., Valls-Pedret, C., Castellvi, M., Olives, J., & Molinuevo, J. L. (2014). The subjective cognitive decline Questionnaire (SCD-Q): A validation study. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 41(2), 453–466. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-132027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richard, E., Reitz, C., Honig, L. H., Schupf, N., Tang, M. X., Manly, J. J., Mayeux, R., Devanand, D., & Luchsinger, J. A. (2013, Mar 1). Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. JAMA Neurology, 70(3), 374–382. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.603

  • Ries, M. L., Jabbar, B. M., Schmitz, T. W., Trivedi, M. A., Gleason, C. E., Carlsson, C. M., Rowley, H. A., Asthana, S., & Johnson, S. C. (2007, May). Anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment: Relationship to activation of cortical midline structures involved in self-appraisal. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13(3), 450–461. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617707070488

  • Rivera Mindt, M., Byrd, D., Saez, P., & Manly, J. (2010). Increasing culturally competent neuropsychological services for ethnic minority populations: A call to action. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24(3), 429–453. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854040903058960

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Robert, P., Ferris, S., Gauthier, S., Ihl, R., Winblad, B., & Tennigkeit, F. (2010). Review of Alzheimer’s disease scales: Is there a need for a new multi-domain scale for therapy evaluation in medical practice? Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 2(4), 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/alzrt48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, R., & Knopman, D. S. (2013, Nov). Classification and epidemiology of MCI. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 29(4), 753–772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2013.07.003

  • Sachdev, P. S., Lipnicki, D. M., Kochan, N. A., Crawford, J. D., Thalamuthu, A., Andrews, G., Brayne, C., Matthews, F. E., Stephan, B. C., Lipton, R. B., Katz, M. J., Ritchie, K., Carriere, I., Ancelin, M. L., Lam, L. C., Wong, C. H., Fung, A. W., Guaita, A., Vaccaro, R., Davin, A., Ganguli, M., Dodge, H., Hughes, T., Anstey, K. J., Cherbuin, N., Butterworth, P., Ng, T. P., Gao, Q., Reppermund, S., Brodaty, H., Schupf, N., Manly, J., Stern, Y., Lobo, A., Lopez-Anton, R., Santabarbara, J., & Cohort Studies of Memory in an International, C. (2015). The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in diverse geographical and ethnocultural regions: The COSMIC collaboration. PLoS One, 10(11), e0142388. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142388

  • Sachs-Ericsson, N., & Blazer, D. G. (2015, Jan). The new DSM-5 diagnosis of mild neurocognitive disorder and its relation to research in mild cognitive impairment. Aging and Mental Health, 19(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2014.920303

  • Schultz, I. Z. (2013, 2013/12/01). DSM-5 neurocognitive disorders: validity, reliability, fairness, and utility in forensic applications. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(4), 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-013-9174-7

  • Schultz, I. Z., & Greer, S. C. (2016, 2016/06/01). Neuropsychological, psychological, and vocational assessment of high achievers in a medicolegal context. Psychological Injury and Law, 9(2), 154–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-016-9260-8

  • Schultz, I. Z., Sepehry, A. A., & Greer, S. C. (2018a, 2018a/06/01). Cognitive impact of fatigue in forensic neuropsychology context. Psychological Injury and Law, 11(2), 108–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-018-9324-z

  • Schultz, I. Z., Sepehry, A. A., & Greer, S. C. (2018b). Impact of common mental health disorders on cognition: Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in forensic neuropsychology context. Psychological Injury and Law, 11(2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-018-9322-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, I. Z., Sepehry, A. A., & Greer, S. C. (2018c). Impact of pain on cognitive function in forensic neuropsychology context. Psychological Injury and Law, 11(2), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-018-9318-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz, I. Z., Sepehry, A. A., & Greer, S. C. (2018d). Impact of tinnitus on cognitive function in forensic neuropsychology context. Psychological Injury and Law, 11(2), 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-018-9321-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sepehry, A. A., Lee, P. E., Hsiung, G. R., Beattie, B. L., Feldman, H. H., & Jacova, C. (2017). The 2002 NIMH provisional diagnostic criteria for depression of Alzheimer’s disease (PDC-dAD): Gauging their validity over a decade later. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 58(2), 449–462. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-161061

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Si, T., Xing, G., & Han, Y. (2020). Subjective cognitive decline and related cognitive deficits. Frontiers in Neurology, 11, 247. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00247

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Stanley, B., Stanley, M., Guido, J., & Garvin, L. (1988, Jun). The functional competency of elderly at risk. Gerontologist, 28 Suppl, 53–58. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.suppl.53

  • Stern, Y. (2002, Mar). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(3), 448–460. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939702

  • Stern, Y. (2003, Aug). The concept of cognitive reserve: A catalyst for research. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(5), 589–593. https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.25.5.589.14571

  • Stern, Y. (2012, Nov). Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 11(11), 1006–1012. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70191-6

  • Stern, Y. (2013). Cognitive reserve: Implications for assessment and intervention. Folia Phoniatrica Et Logopaedica, 65(2), 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1159/000353443

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Steward, K. A., Kennedy, R., Novack, T. A., Crowe, M., Marson, D. C., & Triebel, K. L. (2018, Jan/Feb). The role of cognitive reserve in recovery from traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 33(1), E18-E27. https://doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000325

  • Studart, A. N., & Nitrini, R. (2016, Jul-Sep). Subjective cognitive decline: The first clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease? Dementia e Neuropsychologia, 10(3), 170–177. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-5764-2016DN1003002

  • Sunderland, T., Alterman, I. S., Yount, D., Hill, J. L., Tariot, P. N., Newhouse, P. A., Mueller, E. A., Mellow, A. M., & Cohen, R. M. (1988, Aug). A new scale for the assessment of depressed mood in demented patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(8), 955–959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3394879

  • Tabert, M. H., Albert, S. M., Borukhova-Milov, L., Camacho, Y., Pelton, G., Liu, X., Stern, Y., & Devanand, D. P. (2002, Mar 12). Functional deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment: Prediction of AD. Neurology, 58(5), 758–764. https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.58.5.758

  • Tuokko, H. A., & Smart, C. M. (2018). Neuropsychology of cognitive decline: A developmental approach to assessment and intervention. The Guilford Press.

  • Vellinga, A., Smit, J. H., van Leeuwen, E., van Tilburg, W., & Jonker, C. (2004, Dec). Instruments to assess decision-making capacity: An overview. International Psychogeriatrics, 16(4), 397–419. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15715357

  • Verkaik, R., Francke, A. L., van Meijel, B., Ribbe, M. W., & Bensing, J. M. (2009, Jul). Comorbid depression in dementia on psychogeriatric nursing home wards: Which symptoms are prominent? American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(7), 565–573. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19554671

  • Viviano, R. P., & Damoiseaux, J. S. (2020, Mar 9). Functional neuroimaging in subjective cognitive decline: Current status and a research path forward. Alzheimers Res Ther, 12(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00591-9

  • Wadley, V. G., Harrell, L. E., & Marson, D. C. (2003, Nov). Self- and informant report of financial abilities in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: Reliable and valid? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(11), 1621–1626. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51514.x

  • Wei, E. X., & Agrawal, Y. (2017). Vestibular dysfunction and difficulty with driving: Data from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Frontiers in Neurology, 8, 557. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2017.00557

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Wittenberg, R., Knapp, M., Bo, H., Comas-Herrera, A., King, D., Rehill, A., Banerjee, S., Patel, A., Jagger, C., & Kingston, A. (2019). The costs of dementia in England. The Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 34(7), 1095-1103.

  • Winblad, B., Palmer, K., Kivipelto, M., Jelic, V., Fratiglioni, L., Wahlund, L. O., Nordberg, A., Backman, L., Albert, M., Almkvist, O., Arai, H., Basun, H., Blennow, K., de Leon, M., DeCarli, C., Erkinjuntti, T., Giacobini, E., Graff, C., Hardy, J., Jack, C., Jorm, A., Ritchie, K., van Duijn, C., Visser, P., & Petersen, R. C. (2004, Sep). Mild cognitive impairment--beyond controversies, towards a consensus: Report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 240–246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01380.x

  • Wong, S. L., Gilmour, H., & Ramage-Morin, P. L. (2016, May 18). Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in Canada. Health Reports, 27(5), 11–16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27192206

  • Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1982). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37–49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7183759

  • Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report [Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37–49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7183759

  • Zanetti, O., Geroldi, C., Frisoni, G. B., Bianchetti, A., & Trabucchi, M. (1999, Feb). Contrasting results between caregiver's report and direct assessment of activities of daily living in patients affected by mild and very mild dementia: The contribution of the caregiver's personal characteristics. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(2), 196–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb04578.x

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amir A. Sepehry.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sepehry, A.A., Schultz, I.Z., Cohen, D.A. et al. From Subjective Cognitive Decline to Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: Clinical and Capacity Assessment Considerations. Psychol. Inj. and Law (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-022-09456-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-022-09456-y

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s
  • Capacity
  • Depression
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuropsychiatry
  • Neuropsychology
  • Subjective cognitive decline