This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Bergouignan, L., Nyberg, L., & Ehrsson, H. H. (2014). Out-of-body–induced hippocampal amnesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 4421–4426.
Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735.
Brand, B. L., Dalenberg, C. J., Frewen, P. A., Loewenstein, P. J., Schielke, H. J., Brams, J. S., & Spiegel, D. (2018). Trauma-related dissociation is no fantasy: addressing the errors of omissions and errors commission in Merckelbach and Patihis (2018). Psychological Injury & Law, 11, 377–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-018-9336-8.
Brand, B. L., Schielke, H. J., & Brams, J. S. (2017). Assisting the courts in understanding and connecting with experiences of disconnection: addressing trauma-related dissociation as a forensic psychologist, part I. Psychological Injury and Law, 10, 283–297.
Brand, B. L., Schielke, H. J., Brams, J. S., & DiComo, R. A. (2017). Assessing trauma-related dissociation in forensic contexts: addressing trauma-related dissociation as a forensic psychologist, part II. Psychological Injury and Law, 10, 298–312.
Brenneis, C. B. (2000). Evaluating the evidence: can we find authenticated recovered memory? Psychoanalytic Psychology, 17, 61–77.
Brown, D. W., Anda, R. F., Edwards, V. J., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., & Giles, W. H. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences and childhood autobiographical memory disturbance. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 961–969.
Edmond, G., Towler, A., Growns, B., Ribeiro, G., Found, B., White, D., et al. (2017). Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners. Science & Justice, 57, 144–154.
Farrell, H. M. (2011). Dissociative identity disorder: medicolegal challenges. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39, 402–406.
Freedman, R., Lewis, D. A., Michels, R., Pine, D. S., Schultz, S. K., Tamminga, C. A., et al. (2013). The initial field trials of DSM-5: new blooms and old thorns. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 1–5.
Herman, S., & Freitas, T. R. (2010). Error rates in forensic child sexual abuse evaluations. Psychological Injury and Law, 3, 133–147.
Holmes, D. S. (1994). Is there evidence for repression? Doubtful. Harvard Mental Health Letter, 10(12), 4–6.
Hume, D. (1748/1977). An inquiry concerning human understanding. Indianapolis, In: Hackett. (Original work published in 1748).
Imwinkelried, E. J. (2018). The best insurance against miscarriages of justice caused by junk science: An admissibility test that is scientifically and legally sound. Albany Law Review, 81, 851–875.
Kassin, S. M., Tubb, V. A., & Hosch, H. M. (2001). On the'general acceptance'of eyewitness testimony research: a new survey of the experts. American Psychologist, 56, 405–416.
Kleim, B., & Ehlers, A. (2008). Reduced autobiographical memory specificity predicts depression and posttraumatic stress disorder after recent trauma. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 231–242.
Kritchevsky, M., Chang, J., & Squire, L. R. (2004). Functional amnesia: clinical description and neuropsychological profile of 10 cases. Learning & Memory, 11, 213–226.
Lalonde, J. K., Hudson, J. I., Gigante, R. A., & Pope, H. G. (2001). Canadian and American psychiatrists' attitudes toward dissociative disorders diagnoses. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 407–412.
Laney, C., & Loftus, E. F. (2008). Emotional content of true and false memories. Memory, 16, 500–516.
Loftus, E. F. (2003). Memory in Canadian courts of law. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 44, 207–212.
Merckelbach, H., & Patihis, L. (2018). Why “trauma-related dissociation” is a misnomer in courts: a critical analysis of Brand et al. (2017a, b). Psychological Injury and Law, 11, 370–376.
Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Loftus, E. F., & Herrera, M. E. (in press). Memory experts’ beliefs about repressed memory. Memory, 1–6. Published online first October 2018.https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2018.1532521
Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F. (2014). Are the “memory wars” over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychological Science, 25, 519–530.
Patihis, L., & Pendergrast, M. H. (2019). Reports of recovered memories of abuse in therapy in a large age-representative US national sample: therapy type and decade comparisons. Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702618773315
Piper, A., Lillevik, L., & Kritzer, R. (2008). What’s wrong with believing in repression?: a review for legal professionals. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 14, 223–242.
Pope, H. G., Oliva, P. S., Hudson, J. I., Bodkin, J. A., & Gruber, A. J. (1999). Attitudes toward DSM-IV dissociative disorders diagnoses among board-certified American psychiatrists. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 321–323.
Porter, S., Campbell, M. A., Birt, A. R., & Woodworth, M. T. (2003). “He said, she said”: a psychological perspective on historical memory evidence in the courtroom. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 44, 190–206.
Raymaekers, L., Smeets, T., Peters, M. J., & Merckelbach, H. (2010). Autobiographical memory specificity among people with recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 338–344.
Rettew, D. C., Lynch, A. D., Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., & Ivanova, M. Y. (2009). Meta-analyses of agreement between diagnoses made from clinical evaluations and standardized diagnostic interviews. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 18, 169–184.
Rofé, Y. (2008). Does repression exist? Memory, pathogenic, unconscious and clinical evidence. Review of General Psychology, 12, 63–85.
Sagan, C. (1979). Broca’s brain, reflections on the romance of science. New York: Random House.
Saks, M. J., & Koehler, J. J. (2005). The coming paradigm shift in forensic identification science. Science, 309, 892–895.
Stockdale, G. D., Gridley, B. E., Balogh, D. W., & Holtgraves, T. (2002). Confirmatory factor analysis of single and multiple-factor competing models of the dissociative experiences scale in a nonclinical sample. Assessment, 9, 94–106.
Takarangi, M. K., Polaschek, D. L., Garry, M. A., & Loftus, E. F. (2008). Psychological science, victim advocates, and the problem of recovered memories. International Review of Victimology, 15, 147–163.
Thomas, R. P., & Lawrence, A. (2018). Assessment of expert performance compared across professional domains. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7, 167–176.
Truzzi, M. (1978). On the extraordinary: an attempt at clarification. Zetetic Scholar, 1, 11–19.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Patihis, L., Otgaar, H. & Merckelbach, H. Expert Witnesses, Dissociative Amnesia, and Extraordinary Remembering: Response to Brand et al.. Psychol. Inj. and Law 12, 281–285 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12207-019-09348-8