Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire

  • Amirhosein RahbariEmail author
  • Mehdi Dehestani
  • Hamzeh Baharlouei


The present study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the Persian version of the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ-P). Data were collected from 230 participants (122 females and 108 males between 20 and 60 years of age) with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Principal component analysis was used to test the factor structure of the questionnaire. Construct validity was assessed by investigating Pearson correlations among the IEQ-P and other related questionnaires. Internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest reliability was examined through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in 48 participants within a three-week period. To examine the differences in the IEQ-P total scores by categorical independent variables, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. A two-component solution was yielded with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha .86). The IEQ-P was correlated significantly with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), r = .62, p < .01; McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), r = .44, p < .01; Pain Disability Index (PDI), r = .5, p < .01; Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), r = .48, p < .01; and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), r = .4, p < .01. Regression analyses revealed that the IEQ-P contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of pain severity, β = .28, p < .001; self-report disability; β = .26, p < .001; and depression, β = .21, p < .001. The obtained results demonstrated an excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = .95). Age, duration of pain, occupation, and educational level were related to the IEQ-P total scores. The IEQ-P was found to be a reliable and valid assessment tool.


Persian Injustice experience questionnaire Perceived injustice Reliability Validity Chronic musculoskeletal pain 



Authors are grateful to Dr. Sullivan for giving generous permission to use the questionnaire and his active cooperation in back translation. His constructive comments are greatly appreciated, as well. Furthermore, we appreciate Hooman Hamraahi’s contribution to the questionnaire translation. We thank all the participants and, especially, Shamsi Termebaf and Afrouz Amini for their assistance in collecting the data.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (national and institutional). Informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects participating in the study. This study was IRB approved.

Informed Consent

Informed written consent was obtained from all participants before being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amirhosein Rahbari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehdi Dehestani
    • 1
  • Hamzeh Baharlouei
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyPayame Nour University of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Research CenterAhvaz Jundishapur University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran

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