In the present study, the aerodynamic performance and flight stability of a two-dimensional (2D) canopy in a paraglider are optimized using a combination of response surface methodology (RSM) and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) coupled with the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations solver. Compared to a 2D base case, an optimized canopy, featured by reduced airfoil thickness, shows an increase in the aerodynamic performance up to 18.9 % based on lift-to-drag ratio, while the flight stability is similar between them. An optimized three-dimensional (3D) canopy is constructed by duplicating the 2D canopy along the arc direction to identify the effects of the optimization on an actual 3D canopy. Based on large-eddy simulation (LES) data of the optimized 3D canopy and base 3D canopy, we show an improvement of the aerodynamic performance and stability of the optimized 3D canopy, consistent with our results from the 2D canopies.
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- C D :
- C L :
- th :
- h :
Maximum camber thickness
- l :
Location of the maximum camber
- c :
- τ̃ ij :
- ũ i :
- v :
- S̃ ij :
- U τ :
Local friction velocity
- δ v :
Viscous length scale
- u̅ i :
- p̅ :
- τ ij :
Sub-grid scale stress tensor
- S̅ :
Resolved strain rate tensor
- U ∞ :
- M LE :
Aerodynamic moment at the leading edge
- M cg :
Aerodynamic moment at the center of gravity of the system
- q ∞ :
- α :
Angle of attack
- α e :
Equilibrium angle of attack
- C M, cg :
Moment coefficient of the flight system
- C p :
- x sep :
Location of separation point
- x re :
Location of reattachment point
- ω :
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This research was supported by the Sports Leading Company Core Technology Development Project (S202101-05-01-02) through the Korea Sports Promotion Foundation funded by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism.
Min Je Kim received B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea, in 2017. He is currently in combined M.S./Ph.D. course in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea.
Hyeon Gyu Hwang received B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea, in 2017. He is currently in combined M.S./Ph.D. course in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea.
Jae Hwa Lee received Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in 2012. He is currently an Associated Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea.
Jooha Kim received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Seoul National University in 2007 and 2015, respectively. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Korea.
Jungmok Park received his Masters degree from the University Science and Technology (UST) in Daejeon, South Korea. He has been flying paragliders since 1998 and has worked in Gin Gliders since 2003. His research interests include the sport science of ram-air wings such as paragliders and parachutes.
Ginseok Song graduated Hongik University in Seoul and has been flying hang gliders since 1981. He has designed paragliders since 1991 and is a founder and CEO of Gin Gliders, a leading paragliding brand. His research interests include the sport science of ram-air wings such as paragliders and parachutes.
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Kim, M.J., Hwang, H.G., Lee, J.H. et al. Aerodynamic design optimization for a canopy based on response surface methodology and a multi-objective genetic algorithm. J Mech Sci Technol 36, 4509–4522 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-022-0815-1