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Numerical study on the effect of staggered wire electrodes in an electrostatic precipitator

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In this paper, a numerical model is developed to describe the wire-plate electrostatic precipitator used in industrial application for air cleaning. The complex interactions between fluid dynamics, electric fields and particle dynamics are considered. Therefore, the combined Eulerian and Lagrangian approach is used in this study. In order to describe corona phenomena around high voltage electrode, electric field and ion current density field in electrostatic precipitator are numerically calculated using the iterative method for corona discharge model suggested by Kim [1]. The charging model suggested by Lawless [2] is used for the charging phenomena of particles by corona discharge because it was designed to predict combination effect of diffusion charge and field charge. The numerical model in this study is implemented by UDF in commercial software FLUENT and validated with experimental and numerical results from literatures. The effects of wire arrangement on electrostatic precipitator characteristics are investigated. Both inline and staggered arrangements of wire electrode have been considered for fixed value of gas velocity equal to 2 m/s. Applied voltage on wire electrode is varied in the range of 6 to 13 kV and particle diameter is 4 µm. For low voltage condition, staggered arrangement of wire electrode caused the turbulent effect so that the collection efficiency increases more than inline arrangement. However, the collection efficiency decreases in high voltage condition because electric force applied on particles passing between the wire electrodes is canceled out by both side wire electrodes.

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ρ :

Gas phase density (kg m−3)

u k :

Velocity component in xk direction (m s−1)

x k :

Coordinate in tensor notation (m)

μ :

Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

μ t :

Turbulent viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

P :

Pressure (Pa)

F e :

Electric body force (N m−3)

k :

Turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2)

ε :

Turbulent dissipation rate (m2 s−3)

C C 1 C 2 :

Constants of turbulent model

σ k σ ε :

Constants of turbulent model

ϕ :

Electric potential (V)

ρ ion :

Ion current density (C m−3)

ε 0 :

Air permittivity (C2 N−1m−2)

E k :

Electric strength (V m−1)

k ion :

Ion mobility (1.8×10−4 m2 V−1s−1)

D e :

Ion diffusivity (4.11×10−6 m2 s−1)

δ :

Relative density of air

r :

Radius of wire electrode (m)

E s :

Electric strength at wire (V m−1)

u p :

Particle velocity (m s−1)

C D :

Drag force coefficient

ρ p :

Particle density (kg m−3)

q p :

Particle charge (C)

m p :

Particle mass (kg)

d p :

Particle diameter (m)

e :

Charge on an electron (1.6×10−19 C)

k b :

Boltzmann’s constant (J K−1)

K p :

Particle dielectric constant

d :

Distance between wire to collecting plate (m)


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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant, which is funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2017R1A2B3004883 and No. 2019R1A5A808320111).

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Correspondence to Yong Gap Park or Man Yeong Ha.

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Recommended by Guest Editor Seongwon Kang and Hyoung-gwon Choi

Ho Yeon Choi received his B.S. degree from Dong-A University, Korea, in 2014, and his M.S. degree from Pusan National University, Korea, in 2016. He started attending Pusan National University for the Ph.D. program under the supervision of Professor Man Yeong Ha. His research interests are focused on numerical simulation on electro-hydrodynamics in electrostatic precipitator.

Yong Gap Park received his B.S. degree from Pusan National University, Korea, in 2008, his Ph.D. degree from Pusan National University, Korea, in 2014. Dr. Park is currently a Professor at the School of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University in Changwon. His research interests are focused on natural convection, heat exchanger and computational fluid dynamics.

Man Yeong Ha received his B.S degree from Pusan National University, Korea, in 1981, his M.S. degree from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, in 1983, and his Ph.D. degree from Pennsylvania State University, USA in 1990. Dr. Ha is currently a Professor at the School of Mechanical Engineering at Pusan National University in Busan, Korea. He served as Editor of the Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology. He is a member of Honorary Editorial Advisory Board of the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. His research interests are focused on thermal management, computational fluid dynamics, and finite volume method using hybrid scheme.

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Choi, H.Y., Park, Y.G. & Ha, M.Y. Numerical study on the effect of staggered wire electrodes in an electrostatic precipitator. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 3303–3310 (2020).

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