Skip to main content
Log in

Additive manufacturing (AM) of piercing punches by the PBF method of metal 3D printing using mold steel powder materials

  • Published:
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The purpose of this study is to develop additive manufacturing fabrication for high-strength punches. After screening the powder material and the manufacturing method, a solution possessing excellent mechanical properties was selected for manufacturing. Additive manufacturing specimens and comparative specimens were fabricated using metal materials while the comparative specimens were produced with bulk materials in the same grade as the powder materials. The specimens were tested to determine their mechanical properties. The additive manufacturing specimens were produced through the PBF method for three kinds of die steel powder materials: H13, M300 and KP4. In the experimental section, tests for density, hardness, and toughness were included. SEM and EDS analysis were also used in this study to analyze and observe the microstructure of the additive manufacturing specimens. Considering the mechanical properties test and the SEM and EDS results, it was easy to determine that M300 was the most suitable material for high-strength punches. It not only possesses better mechanical properties, but also a better microstructure than the other two materials. The punch fabricated by the M300 and PBF additive manufacturing methods exhibited good performance in durability testing. In this study, the use of 3D printing technology to produce high-strength punches with high-strength die steel powder material has become a reality. In the future, the process parameters should be optimized and post-processing of punches should be added to obtain additive-manufacturing punches with better mechanical properties.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Y. Tamaki, Research into achieving a lightweight vehicle body utilizing structure optimizing analysis: Aim for a lightweight and high and rigid vehicle body, JSAE Review, 20 (4) (1999) 558–561.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. A. Afseth, Ultra–high–strength aluminium alloys — Vehicle production’s next big thing, Lightweight Design Worldwide, 10 (2) (2017) 12–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. P.–S. Rogelio, E. Billur, A. Ademaj, C. Sarmiento, R. Berlanga and T. Altan, Hot stamping a B–pillar with tailored properties: Experiments and preliminary simulation results, Hot Stamping Conferences, Lulea, Sweden (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  4. P. Hu, L. Ying and B. He, Lightweight of car body structure applied by hot stamping parts, Hot Stamping Advanced Manufacturing Technology of Lightweight Car Body (2016) 243–277.

    Google Scholar 

  5. J. H. Ji and P. Wang, New trends of laser applications for hot forming parts manufacturing, Advanced High Strength Steel and Press Hardening, Chang Sha, China (2016) 633–640.

    Google Scholar 

  6. K. Mori, P. F. Bariani, B.–A. Behrens, A. Brosius, S. Bruschi, T. Maeno, M. Merklein and J. Yanagimoto, Hot stamping of ultra–high strength steel parts, CIRP Annals, 66 (2) (2017) 755–777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. W.–S. Kim, M.–P. Hong, J.–S. Park, Y.–S. Lee, K. J. Cha, J.–H. Sung, M.–W. Jung and Y.–H. Lee, Case studies on applications of conformal cooling channel based on DMT technology, Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers, 14 (3) (2015) 9–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. W. Kim, M. Hong, Y. Kim, C. H. Suh, J. Lee, S. Lee and J. H. Sung, Effects and application cases of injection molds by using DED type additive manufacturing process, Journal of Welding and Joining, 32 (4) (2014) 10–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. G. Y. Baek, G. Y. Shin, E. M. Lee, D. S. Shim, K. Y. Lee, H.–S. Yoon and M. H. Kim, Mechanical characteristics of a tool steel layer deposited by using direct energy deposition, Metals and Materials International, 23 (4) (2017) 770–777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. D.–S. Shim, G.–Y. Baek and E.–M. Lee, Effect of substrate preheating by induction heater on direct energy deposition of AISI M4 powder, Materials Science and Engineering, (2017) 550–562.

    Google Scholar 

  11. M. Pleterski et al., Blanking punch life improvement by laser cladding, Engineering Failure Analysis, 18 (6) (2011) 1527–1537.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J. S. Park, M.–G. Lee, Y.–J. Cho, J. H. Sung, M.–S. Jeong, S.–K. Lee, Y.–J. Choi and D. H. Kim, Effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the directed energy deposition process, Metals and Materials International, 22 (1) (2016) 143–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. D. L. Bourell, D. W. Rosen and M. C. Leu, The roadmap for additive manufacturing and its impact, 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 1 (1) (2014) 6–9.

    Google Scholar 

  14. W. E. King, A. T. Anderson, R. M. Ferencz, N. E. Hodge, C. Kamath, S. A. Khairallah and A. M. Rubenchik, Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of metals; physics, computational, and materials challenges, Applied Physics Reviews, 2 (4) (2015) 041304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. S. A. Rovalma, Presentation Document for HHI (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  16. W.–Y. Lu, N. Yang, J. Yee and K. Connelly, Mechanical properties of 3–D LENS and PBF printed stainless steel 316L prototypes, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series (2017) 37–43.

    Google Scholar 

  17. A. Kreitcberg, V. Brailovski, V. Sheremetyev and S. Prokoshkin, Effect of laser powder bed fusion parameters on the microstructure and texture development in superelastic Ti–18Zr–14Nb alloy, Shape Memory and Superelasticity, 3 (4) (2017) 361–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. KS B 0809:2001: Test Pieces for Impact Test for Metallic Materials, Korean Standards Association.

  19. ASTM E18–17e1: Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials, Developed by Subcommittee: E28.06.

  20. KS D 0033:2011: Method for Determination of Density of Metal Powder Sintered Materials, Korean Standards Association.

  21. F. H. Çakir and O. N. Çelik, Effect of isothermal bainitic quenching on rail steel impact strength and wear resistance, Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 59 (5–6) (2017) 289–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. A. Yadollahi, N. Shamsaei, S. M. Thompson and D. W. Seely, Effects of process time interval and heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructural properties of direct laser deposited 316L stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 644 (2015) 171–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. S. A. Rovalma, Heat Treatment Recommendations, Presentation document (2013).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Soon Yong Yang.

Additional information

Recommended by Associate Editor Yongho Jeon

Soon Yong Yang received his Ph.D. degree from University of Tokyo. Now he is a Professor at the University of Ulsan, Korea. His current research interest is vehicle mechatronics, field robot, silver robot.

Yong Seok Kim received his Ph.D. degree from University of Ulsan. Now he is a Research Professor at the University of Ulsan, Korea. His current research interest is Metal 3D printing technology, AM simulation, mechanism design and simulation, dynamics, CAE, CAD, CFD.

Rui Li received his M.S. degree from University of Ulsan. Now he is a researcher at MAHLE. His current research interest is design of piston ring and bearing.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, R., Kim, Y.S., Tho, H.V. et al. Additive manufacturing (AM) of piercing punches by the PBF method of metal 3D printing using mold steel powder materials. J Mech Sci Technol 33, 809–817 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: