Experimental and numerical studies of wingtip and downwash effects on horizontal tail

Abstract

Studying wing downwash, which is caused by the wingtip effect, and its influence on horizontal tail is important for aircraft design. In this work, wing downwash was investigated using experimental and numerical methods. Sets of main wings and horizontal tails were fixed in a tunnel test chamber. For determining the wingtip effect and the wing downwash affecting the horizontal tail, experiments were performed, in which the pressure distributions near the main wingtip and on the upper and lower surfaces of the tail were measured. These experimental models were used in numerical calculations by the solving of differential equations for viscous flows and use of a singularity method for potential flows. The singularity method can be applied to determine the wing lift, as indicated by comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the pressure distribution on the wing. Moreover, the wingtip and wing downwash effects influencing the horizontal tail should be determined with use of experimental and numerical methods that solve differential equations of viscous flow. In addition to the results regarding the pressure distributions near the main wing and on the horizontal tail, the longitudinal velocity, downwash velocity, and downwash angle distributions in the main wing wake were analyzed. We also investigated the kinetic parameters of the flow in mixed zones between the main wing downwash and the tail upwash.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    R. C. Nelson, Flight Stability and Automatic Control, Second Ed., McGraw–Hill Education, Inc., Singapore (1998).

    Google Scholar 

  2. [2]

    A. Paziresh, A. H. Nikseresht and H. Moradi, Wing–body and vertical tail interference effects on downwash rate of the horizontal tail in subsonic flow, Journal of Aerospace Engineering ASCE, 30 (4) (2017) 04017001(1–12).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    M. Mahdi, Prediction of wing downwash using CFD, 3rd International Workshop on Numerical Modelling in Aerospace Sciences, Romania, 7 (2) (2015) 105–111.

    Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    A. Grote and R. Radespiel, Studies on tailplane stall for a generic transport aircraft wind tunnel model, New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics VI (2007) 26–35.

    Google Scholar 

  5. [5]

    E. Loth and B. W. Mccormick, Numerical solution of the downwash associated with a blown–flap system, Journal of Aircraft, 24 (3) (1987) 170–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. [6]

    V. J. Rossov, Validation of vortex–lattice method for loads on wings in lift–generated wakes, Journal of Aircraft, 32 (6) (1995) 1254–1262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. [7]

    D. Keller, Numerical approach aspects for the investigation of the longitudinal static stability of a transport aircraft with circulation control, New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics IX (2014) 13–22.

    Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    T. B. N. Hoang and M. H. Nguyen, Calculation of transonic flows around profiles with blunt and angled leading edges, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 38 (1) (2016) 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. [9]

    T. B. N. Hoang and M. H. Nguyen, Study of separation phenomenon in transonic flows produced by interaction between shock wave and boundary layer, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 33 (3) (2011) 170–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    T. B. N. Hoang, Computational investigation of the variation in wing aerodynamic load under the effect of aeroelastic deformations, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 32 (10) (2018) 4665–4673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. [11]

    B. A. Haider, C. H. Sohn, Y. S. Won and Y. M. Koo, Aerodynamic performance evaluation of basic airfoils for an agricultural unmanned helicopter using wind tunnel test and CFD simulation, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (9) (2017) 4221–4226.

    Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    M. Masdari, M. Jahanmiri, M. R. Soltani, A. Tabrizian and M. Gorji, Experimental investigation of a supercritical airfoil boundary layer in pitching motion, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31 (1) (2017) 189–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    M. R. Soltani, M. Masdari and M. R. Tirandaz, Effect of an end plate on surface pressure distributions of two swept wings, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 30 (5) (2017) 1631–1643.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. [14]

    M. Hadidoolabi and H. Ansarian, Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 31 (1) (2018) 65–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. [15]

    M. H. Nguyen and T. B. N. Hoang, Experimental study of laminar separation phenomenon combining with numerical calculations, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 33 (2) (2011) 95–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [16]

    L. Gao, C. Li, H. Jin, Y. Zhu, J. Zhao and H. Cai, Aerodynamic characteristics of a novel catapult launched morphing tandem–wing unmanned aerial vehicle, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9 (2) (2017) 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. [17]

    J. Pan and E. Loth, Reynolds–averaged Navier–Stokes simulations of airfoils and wings with ice shapes, Journal of Aircraft, 41 (4) (2004) 879–891.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. [18]

    J. H. Sa, S. H. Park, C. J. Kim and J. K. Park, Low–Reynolds number flow computation for eppler 387 wing using hybrid DES/transition model, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 29 (5) (2015) 1837–1847.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. [19]

    L. Smith, Investigation of a modified low–drag body for an alternative wing–body–tail configuration, Doctoral Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  20. [20]

    J. Katz and A. Plotkin, Low Speed Aerodynamics, Second Ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, USA (2001).

    Google Scholar 

  21. [21]

    T. B. N. Hoang, Calculating the aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 34 (3) (2012) 169–184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. [22]

    F. W. Riegels, Aerofoil Sections, Butterworths & Co. Ltd., London, England (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  23. [23]

    D. F. Thomas Jr. and W. D. Wolhart, Static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics at low speed of 45 degree Sweptback–midwing models, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Langley Aeronautical Lab, Washington, USA (1957).

    Google Scholar 

  24. [24]

    H. Schlichting and E. A. Truckenbrodt, Aerodynamics of the Airplane, McGraw–Hill, Inc., USA (1979).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ngoc T. B. Hoang.

Additional information

Recommended by Associate Editor Hyoung-Bum Kim

Hoang Thi Bich Ngoc is Associate Professor at the School of Transportation Engineering, HUST, Vietnam, and acquired her M.A. and Ph.D. in France. Her interests include aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, flight mechanics, turbomachines, and computational calculations.

Bui Vinh Binh received his B.E. in 2012 from the Excellent Engineer Training Program (PFIEV) and his MAs in 2014 from HUST. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate at HUST. His interests include aerodynamics and airplane stability.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hoang, N.T.B., Bui, B.V. Experimental and numerical studies of wingtip and downwash effects on horizontal tail. J Mech Sci Technol 33, 649–659 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-019-0120-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Wingtip effect
  • Downwash velocities and angles
  • Horizontal tail
  • Experiment
  • Numerical methods