Advertisement

Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 959–967 | Cite as

Investigation of the combustion characteristics of gasoline compression ignition engine fueled with gasoline-biodiesel blends

  • Sakda Thongchai
  • Ocktaeck Lim
Article

Abstract

This research investigates the combustion characteristics of gasoline compression ignition engines fueled with gasoline-biodiesel blends. A single-cylinder diesel engine, modified from a commercial four-cylinder engine, was investigated in Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) mode. Also studied were the effects of the different gasoline blends on the variation of the fuel flow rate (on a mass basis). Gasoline blended with a range of 5-20 % biodiesel and pure diesel was injected into the measuring vessel with various injection pressures and durations by a seven-hole Bosch injector and a common-rail system. The injection pressures were varied from 200 to 1350 bar, and the injection duration was from 800 to 1050 ms while repeating the injection 1000 times for each run. To characterize the combustion, the test engine was mounted with an AC dynamometer and the pressure traces were measured using a piezo-electric pressure transducer. Only pure gasoline mixed with five percent biodiesel as a lubricity enhancer was injected into the cylinder while varying the injection pressure. The injection pressures were set at 600 and 1000 bar while the injection duration was altered to control the same equivalent ratio (λ = 1). Operated in the low-speed condition, the engine speed was fixed at 1200 rpm. Other engine parameters including engine oil, coolant water, and intake air temperature were controlled at the same operating condition for each experiment. To understand the combustion characteristics such as Heat release rate (HRR) and burning duration, the data was analyzed with the one-zone thermodynamic model. Exhaust emissions (CO, NOX and THC) were measured using an exhaust gas analyzer for each case, as well. The results showed that fuel properties had an effect on the injection flow rate. Higher viscosity fuel resulted in a lower injection rate. The injection pressure showed the greatest effect on the fuel flow rate. The higher the injection pressure, the higher the injection flow rate. At the same injection pressure and duration, the injection flow rate was reduced with an increase in the amount of biodiesel in the blend. In terms of combustion phenomena, a 5 % gasoline-biodiesel blend (GB05) showed the most significant differences in combustion when injected at high versus low injection pressures. At the higher injection pressure, the benefits of using diesel fuel were clear, but GB05 combustion at high pressures resulted in increased concentrations of undesirable emissions. On the other hand, GB05 fuel presented clear advantages when injected at a lower pressure. Depending on the injection pressure, the merits of gasoline on the exhaust emission were evaluated, especially with respect to CO, NOX and THC emissions reductions.

Keywords

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) Gasoline-biodiesel blends Injection pressure Injection flow rate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    S. Onishi, S. H. Jo, K. Shoda, P. Do Jo and S. Kato, Active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC)-A new combustion process for internal combustion engines, SAE International (1979).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M. Noguchi, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanaka and Y. Takeuchi, A study on gasoline engine combustion by observation of intermediate reactive products during combustion, SAE International (1979).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Kimura, O. Aoki, H. Ogawa, S. Muranaka and Y. Enomoto, New combustion concept for ultra-clean and highefficiency small di diesel engines, SAE International (1999).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    C. Noehre, M. Andersson, B. Johansson and A. Hultqvist, Characterization of partially premixed combustion, SAE International (2006).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. Sasaki, T. Ito and S. Iguchi, Smoke-less rich combustion by low temperature oxidation in diesel engines, Aachen Colloq. Automob. Engine Technol. (2000) 767.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. Akihama, Y. Takatori, K. Inagaki, S. Sasaki and A. M. Dean, Mechanism of the smokeless rich diesel combustion by reducing temperature, SAE International (2001).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. L. Kokjohn, R. M. Hanson, D. A. Splitter and R. D. Reitz, Fuel Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI): A pathway to controlled high-efficiency clean combustion, Int. J. Engine Res., 12 (2011) 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    L. Tong, H. Wang, Z. Zheng, R. Reitz and M. Yao, Experimental study of RCCI combustion and load extension in a compression ignition engine fueled with gasoline and PODE, Fuel, 181 (2016) 878–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    P. M. Najt and D. E. Foster, Compression-ignited homogeneous charge combustion, SAE International (1983).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Christensen, A. Hultqvist and B. Johansson, Demonstrating the multi fuel capability of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine with variable compression ratio, SAE International (1999).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. Willand, R.-G. Nieberding, G. Vent and C. Enderle, The knocking syndrome-Its cure and its potential, SAE International (1998).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Lavy et al., Innovative ultra-low nox controlled autoignition combustion process for gasoline engines: The 4-SPACE project, SAE International (2000).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. Splitter, M. Wissink, D. DelVescovo and R. D. Reitz, Improving the understanding of intake and charge effects for increasing RCCI engine efficiency, SAE Int. J. Engines, 7 (2014) 913–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. T. Kalghatgi, Auto-ignition quality of practical fuels and implications for fuel requirements of future SI and HCCI engines, SAE International (2005).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    G. T. Kalghatgi, P. Risberg and H.-E. Ångström, Advantages of fuels with high resistance to auto-ignition in late-injection, low-temperature, compression ignition combustion, SAE International (2006).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    R. Hanson, D. Splitter and R. D. Reitz, Operating a heavyduty direct-injection compression-ignition engine with gasoline for low emissions, SAE International (2009).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. L. Kokjohn, R. M. Hanson, D. A. Splitter and R. D. Reitz, Experiments and modeling of dual-fuel HCCI and PCCI combustion using in-cylinder fuel blending, SAE Int. J. Engines, 2 (2009) 24–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    V. Manente, B. Johansson and P. Tunestal, Partially premixed combustion at high load using gasoline and ethanol, a comparison with diesel, SAE International (2009).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    V. Manente, P. Tunestal, B. Johansson and W. J. Cannella, Effects of ethanol and different type of gasoline fuels on partially premixed combustion from low to high load, SAE International (2010).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    C. Woo, H. Goyal, S. Kook, E. R. Hawkes and Q. N. Chan, Double injection strategies for ethanol-fuelled Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion in a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine, SAE Int. (2016).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    C. P. Kolodziej, M. Sellnau, K. Cho and D. Cleary, Operation of a gasoline direct injection compression ignition engine on naphtha and e10 gasoline fuels, SAE Int. J. Engines, 9 (2016) 979–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Y. Putrasari and O. Lim, A study on combustion and emission of GCI engines fueled with gasoline-biodiesel blends, Fuel, 189 (2017) 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. Sellnau, J. Sinnamon, K. Hoyer and H. Husted, Gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDCI)-Diesel-like efficiency with low co2 emissions, SAE Int. J. Engines, 4 (2011) 2010–2022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Sellnau, M. Foster, K. Hoyer, W. Moore, J. Sinnamon and H. Husted, Development of a Gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDCI) engine, SAE Int. J. Engines, 7 (2014) 835–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. C. Sellnau, J. Sinnamon, K. Hoyer, J. Kim, M. Cavotta and H. Husted, Part-load operation of Gasoline directinjection compression ignition (GDCI) engine, SAE International (2013).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    H. G. Kim and S. H. Choi, The characteristics of biodiesel and oxygenated additives in a compression ignition engine, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 27 (2013) 1539–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    I. Cesur, Investigation of the effects of steam injection on the emissions and performance of a diesel engine using waste chicken oil methyl ester, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 30 (2016) 4773–4779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    B. S. Chauhan, N. Kumar and H. M. Cho, Performance and emission studies on an agriculture engine on neat Jatropha oil, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 24 (2010) 529–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    B. P. Singh, Performance and emission characteristics of conventional engine running on jatropha oil, J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 27 (2013) 2569–2574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    H. Caliskan and K. Mori, Environmental, enviroeconomic and enhanced thermodynamic analyses of a diesel engine with Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and Diesel particulate filter (DPF) after treatment systems, Energy, 128 (2017) 128–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    P. Jiao, Z. Li, B. Shen, W. Zhang, X. Kong and R. Jiang, Research of DPF regeneration with NOx-PM coupled chemical reaction, Appl. Therm. Eng., 110 (2017) 737–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Y. Bao, Q. N. Chan, S. Kook and E. Hawkes, Spray penetrations of ethanol gasoline and iso-octane in an optically accessible spark-ignition direct-injection engine, SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 7 (2014) 1010–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    M. M. Khonsari and E. R. Booser, Applied tribology: Bearing design and lubrication, 2nd Ed., Wiley (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    G. Knothe, The lubricity of biodiesel, SAE Int. (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua and A. A. Aziz, High quality biodiesel and its diesel engine application: A review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 14 (2010) 1999–2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    J.-K. Kim, C.-H. Jeon, E.-S. Yim and C.-S. Chung, Lubricity characterization of hydrogenated biodiesel as an alternative diesel fuel, J. KSTLE, 28 (2012) 321–327.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    R. Payri, A. García, V. Domenech, R. Durrett and A. H. Plazas, An experimental study of gasoline effects on injection rate, momentum flux and spray characteristics using a common rail diesel injection system, Fuel, 97 (2012) 390–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    R. Payri, A. Garcia, V. Domenech, R. Durrett and A. Plazas Torres, Hydraulic behavior and spray characteristics of a common rail diesel injection system using gasoline fuel, SAE Tech. Pap. (2012).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    P. Tinprabath, C. Hespel, S. Chanchaona and F. Foucher, Influence of biodiesel and diesel fuel blends on the injection rate under cold conditions, Fuel, 144 (2015) 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    C. Woo, S. Kook and E. R. Hawkes, Effect of intake air temperature and common-rail pressure on ethanol combustion in a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine, Fuel, 180 (2016) 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    R. Opat et al., Investigation of mixing and temperature effects on HC/CO emissions for highly dilute low temperature combustion in a light duty diesel engine, SAE International (2007).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    C. P. Koci et al., Detailed unburned hydrocarbon investigations in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion regime, SAE Int. J. Engines, 2 (2009) 858–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    S. Mendez, J. T. Kashdan, G. Bruneaux, B. Thirouard and F. Vangraefschepe, Formation of unburned hydrocarbons in low temperature diesel combustion, SAE Int. J. Engines, 2 (2009) 205–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    J. B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGraw-Hill (1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanKorea
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of UlsanUlsanKorea

Personalised recommendations