Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to investigate the effect of the interface position of water-air flow on turbulence statistics and flow structures in wall-bounded water-air turbulent flow through a straight channel. Water depths of 90 and 180 viscous wall units, referred to as shallow-water and deep-water cases, respectively, are examined. Water-to-air density and viscosity ratios of 831.7 and 55.56 are considered to model a realistic flow condition at temperature of 25 oC and pressure of 1 atm. The Reynolds number and Froude number are set to 180 and 1.22 x 10-4, respectively, for both shallow-water and deep-water case, based on the friction velocity at the bottom wall, the half depth of the channel, and water density and viscosity. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a timesplitting projection method on an octree grid structure, while the deformation of the interface between water and air is computed using a volume-of-fluid method. With the presence of the water-air interface, velocity profiles in deep-water and shallow-water cases are found to slightly deviate from the log-law profile for a single phase turbulent flow in a channel. The deviation is magnified when the interface is placed closer to the log-law region. Turbulent velocity fluctuations in the water stream are found to be associated with quasi-streamwise vortices and hairpin vortices. The quasi-streamwise vortices which are attached close to the wall are found in both deep-water and shallow-water cases. However, the hairpin vortices of which leading portions are lifted away from the wall are found to be diminished in the shallow-water case while they are clearly observed in the deep-water case.
Water-air flow Turbulent wall structures Direct numerical simulation Volume-of-fluid
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