Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1995–2003 | Cite as

Thermal performance of a vapor chamber for electronic cooling applications

  • Jefferson Raja Bose
  • Nizar Ahammed
  • Lazarus Godson Asirvatham


The heat transfer performance of a vapor chamber and its effectiveness in the cooling of electronic devices are experimentally and theoretically investigated in the present work. The power transistor in the circuit board usually operates with electric power that ranges from 15 W to 100 W, which is the heat input to the simulated processor. The heat flux varies between 3300 and 22000 W/m2. The simulated processor is cooled with the forced and induced air cooling methods with and without the use of the vapor chamber. Results show a maximum temperature decrease of 26 % and a maximum increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient of 36 %. The minimum value of the thermal resistance through the vapor chamber and the total thermal resistance is 0.195 and 0.82 °C/W, respectively. The experimental results are compared with the ANSYS predicted values.


Vapor chamber Electronics cooling Experimental Thermal analysis ANSYS 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    G. P. Peterson, An introduction to heat pipes modeling, testing, and applications, First Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA (1994).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    P. D. Dunn and D. A. Reay, Heat Pipes, Fourth Ed., Pergamon Press, New York, USA (1982).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Z. J. Zuo and T. N. Mark, Combined pulsating and capillary heat pipe mechanism for cooling of high heat flux electronics, 28th IEEE Conf. on Military Comm., 4 (2009) 1012–1021.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Ali, Advanced heat pipe thermal solutions for higher power notebook computers, United States Patent 7857037.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Yun and E. Kroliczek, Operation of capillary pumped loops and loop heat pipes, Thermalolly (2002) 201–208.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    M. Ghajar, J. Darabi and N. A. Crews, Hybrid CFDmathematical model for simulation of a MEMS loop heat pipe for electronics cooling applications, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (2004) 15–313.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    H. Xie and M. Aghazadeh, The use of heat pipes in the cooling of portables with high power packages, IEEE Journal Electronic Components and Technology Conference (1995) 906–913.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. Thayer, Analysis of a heat pipe assisted heat sink, 28th IEEE Conf. on Military Comm., 4 (2009) 1022–1032.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. S. Prasher, A simplified conduction based modeling scheme for design sensitivity study of thermal solution utilizing heat pipe and vapour chamber technology, IEEE Electron. Packaging, 125 (3) (2003) 378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    X. Luo, R. Hu, T. Guo, X. Zhu, W. Chen, Z. Mao and S. Liu, Low thermal resistance LED light source with vapor chamber coupled fin heat sink, Proc. of 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conf., Las Vegas, NV, USA (2010) 1347–1352.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    P. Naphon, S. Wongwises and S. Wiriyasart, Application of two-phase vapor chamber technique for hard disk drive cooling of PCs, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 40 (2013) 32–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. C. Tsai, S. W. Kang and K. V. Paiva, Experimental studies of thermal resistance in a vapor chamber heat spreader, Applied Thermal Engineering, 56 (2013) 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    L. Kai, Low thermal resistance LED light source with vapor chamber coupled with fin heat sink, Proc. of Electronic Components Technology Conf. (2010) 1347–1352.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Lee, Optimum design and selection of heat sinks, Proc. of 11th IEEE Semi-Thermal Symposium, San Jose, California, USA (1995) 48–50.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    R. W. Keyes, Heat transfer in forced convection through fins, IEEE Transactions on Electronic Devices, 9 (1984) 1218–1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Bartilson, Air jet Impingement on a miniature pin fin heat sink, ASME paper number 91-WA-EEP-41 (1991).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    N. Ahammed, L. G. Asirvatham and S. Wongwises, Entropy generation analysis of graphene-alumina hybrid nanofluid in multiport minichannel heat exchanger coupled with thermoelectric cooler, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 103 (2016) 1084–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    N. Ahammed, L. G. Asirvatham and S. Wongwises, Thermoelectric cooling of electronic devices with nanofluid in a multiport minichannel heat exchanger, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 74 (2016) 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    S. W. Chi, Heat pipe Theory and Practice, McGraw Hill, New York, USA (1976).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    C. A. Busse, Theory of the ultimate heat transfer of cylindrical heat pipes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 16 (1973) 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. E. Levy, Ultimate heat pipe performance, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 16 (1969) 717–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    T. P. Cotter, Heat pipe startup dynamics, Proc. of SAE Thermionic Conversion Specialist Conference, Palo Alto, CA. (1967).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    X. Ji, J. Xu and A. M. Abanda, Copper foam based vapor chamber for high heat flux dissipation, Experimental Thermal Fluid Science, 40 (2012) 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    R. Wang, J. Wang and T. Chang, Experimental analysis for thermal performance of a vapor chamber applied to high-performance servers, Heat Pipes and Vapour Chambers, 19 (4) (2011) 353–360.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jefferson Raja Bose
    • 1
  • Nizar Ahammed
    • 1
  • Lazarus Godson Asirvatham
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringKarunya UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations