Brain artery occlusion is a major cause of cerebral stroke. During a stroke, perfusion decreases at tissues distal to the occlusion, but ischemia or hypoperfusion at tissues supplied by arterial branches proximal to the occlusion is not expected. However, ischemia proximal to the occlusion site has been observed without mechanical occlusion of the proximal branches. The mechanism of this unexpected ‘proximal ischemia’ is not well understood yet. In this study, transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations of hemodynamic flow were performed to investigate ‘proximal ischemia’ using three non-Newtonian models and Newtonian model of a simple blood vessel consisting of an artery with one branch. Blood velocity of the artery dropped sharply after occlusion, resulting in shear rates low enough to cause red blood cell aggregation. The average shear rate in a cross-section of the artery during diastole was around 0.1 s−1, resulting in large red blood cell clots. Large aggregates formed in the artery have the potential to block the artery or the entrance of the branch.
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Recommended by Associate Editor Sung Yang
Myungjoon Kim received his Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Sungkyunkwan University of Technology, Korea in 2009. Currently, he is a candidate in the combined master’s and doctorate program in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Sungkyunkwan University. His research is focused on the numerical analysis of particles suspended in fluid.
Taesung Kim received his Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Seoul National University of Technology, Korea in 1994. He received his Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA in 1998 and 2002, respectively. Dr. Kim currently works as a professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering and as an adjunct professor at the SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology at Sungkyunkwan University in Suwon, Korea. His research interests include nanoparticle synthesis, development of applications related to bio aerosols, Chemical Mechanical Polishing and thin film synthesis.
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Kim, M., Min, T., Kwon, OK. et al. Numerical study on proximal ischemia. J Mech Sci Technol 29, 5523–5529 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-1153-3
- Proximal ischemia
- Non-newtonian model
- Computational fluid dynamics
- Shear rate