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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Numerical and experimental analyses of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking processed AZ91 magnesium alloy tubes

This article was retracted on 11 July 2015


A novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique entitled repetitive tube expansion and shrinking (RTES) has been developed to fabricate ultra-fine grained and nanostructured AZ91 tubular components. This method includes two different half-cycles and is based on pressing a tubular part through an angular channel die with two shear zones. In order to primarily demonstrate the deformation behavior and refinement ability of RTES method, the FE simulations and experimental analyses were both done. Analytical calculations and FE simulations of this method accompanied by Abaqus/explicit indicate that the large amount of equivalent plastic strain of 5.8 is imposed in each cycle. In experimental investigations of a single-cycle of RTES, microstructural observations showed a significant grain refinement from the initial value of ∼150 μm to ∼700 nm. The distribution characteristic of refinement and hardness were consistent with that of simulated effective strain. This novel SPD method seems to be very promising for future commercial practice.

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Correspondence to H. Jafarzadeh.

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Recommended by Associate Editor Dae-Cheol Ko

Hossein Jafarzadeh is the Ph.D. candidate in mechanical engineering at university of tehran. His main research interests are metal forming, severe plastic deformation methods, FE micromechanical and crystal plasticity modeling, materials engineering and processing. He has published more than 15 ISI journal papers and more than 12 conference papers. He has also 2 Iranian patents. He has done about 4 research project contracts with Iranian research centers.

The Editors of Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology have decided to retract the paper referenced above, because the article contains substantial duplication of text and figures from two previously-retracted papers from the same authors:

RETRACTED: Repetitive tube expansion and shrinking (RTES) as a novel SPD method for fabrication of nanostructured tubes Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 596, 194-199, 2014, H. Jafarzadeh, K. Abrinia, A. Babaei RETRACTED: Applicability of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking (RTES) as a novel SPD method for fabricating UFGed pure copper tubes Mater. Sci. Eng. A 609, 65–71, 2014, H. Jafarzadeh, K. Abrinia, A. Babaei

These two articles had themselves been retracted for plagiarism of the following two papers, respectively: Microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by compound extrusion Qiang Chen, Zhixiang Zhao, Dayu Shu, Zude Zhao Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528 (2011) 3930-3934 Microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of pure copper processed by ECAP and subsequent cold rolling Sh. Ranjbar Bahadori, K. Dehghani, F. Bakhshandeh Mater. Sci. Eng. A 583 (2013) 36–42, 10.1016/j.msea.2013.06.061

On submission of a paper to JMST the authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not been previously published elsewhere. Published data or figures should be appropriately referenced. The Editors of JMST offer apologies to readers of the journal that this duplication was not detected during the assessment process.

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Jafarzadeh, H., Abrinia, K. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Numerical and experimental analyses of repetitive tube expansion and shrinking processed AZ91 magnesium alloy tubes. J Mech Sci Technol 29, 733–738 (2015).

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  • Severe plastic deformation
  • Ultrafine grain
  • Micro hardness
  • Repetitive tube expansion and shrinking
  • FEM