Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 773–781 | Cite as

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the macroscopic characteristics of the jet discharging from gaseous direct injector

  • Alireza Hajialimohammadi
  • Amir AbdullahEmail author
  • Mostafa AghaMirsalim
  • Iman Chitsaz


Injector design is one of the main challenges for development of direct injection and partially stratified gaseous engines. Characteristics of discharged spray from direct gaseous injector influence on combustion and emissions of these engines. In this work axial and radial (lateral) penetration of transient jet of direct gaseous injector are investigated for different nozzle diameters and different pressure ratios numerically and experimentally. High speed Schlieren imaging method is used for jet visualization and image processing technique is utilized for analyzing the images and extracting jet boundaries and its axial and radial penetrations. Finite volume based software is used for numerical calculations. Measuring of the axial and radial penetrations for different cases referred to in this paper provides more accurate formulation for the mentioned parameters for transient direct injection gaseous jet discharged from the injector. Experimental and numerical findings show that higher axial penetrations for larger diameters of nozzle and higher pressure ratios are achievable. Smaller diameter of nozzle gives higher relative lateral expansion while there is no specific distinction for different pressure ratios. Results show that the ratio of radial to axial penetration for transient jet is decreased by time and reaches to a constant value of 0.33±0.05 and the normalized jet axial penetration has a linear dependency on the square root of time for all cases with slope of 2.9±0.4.


CNG direct injection engines Image processing Injector Schlieren 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Chiodi, H. M. Berner and M. Bargende, Investigation on different injection strategies in a direct-injected turbocharged CNG-engine, SAE paper, National Congress of the Italian Thermotechnical Association (ATI), Perugia, ITALY (2006).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    M. Baratta, A. E. Catania, E. Spess, L. Herrmann and K. Roessler, Multi-dimensional modeling of direct natural-gas injection and mixture formation in a stratified-charge si engine with centrally mounted injector, SAE paper, Detroit, MI, USA (2008).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    C. Reynolds and R. L. Evans, Improving emissions and performance characteristics of lean burn natural gas engines through partial stratification, Int. J. Engine Res, 5(1) (2004) 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    C. Reynolds, R. L. Evans, L. Andreassi, S. Cordiner and V. Mulone, The effect of varying the injected charge stoichiometry in a partially stratified charge natural gas engine, SAE paper, Detroit, MI, USA (2005).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. H. Davy, R. L. Evans and A. Mezo, The ultra lean burn partially stratified charge natural gas engine, 9th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles (SAE), Naples, ITALY (2009).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    R. L. Evans, Extending the lean limit of natural-gas engines, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 131(3) (2009) 032803–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    E. C. Chan, M. H. Davy, G. de Simone and V. Mulone, Numerical and experimental characterization of a natural gas engine with partially stratified charge spark ignition, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 133(2) (2010) 022801–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    E. C. Chan, R. L. Evans, M. H. Davy and S. Cordiner, Preignition characterization of partially-stratified natural gas injection, JSAE 20077252 (2007).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    T. I. Mohamad, M. Harrison, M. Jermy and H. G. How, The structure of the high-pressure gas jet from a spark plug fuel injector for direct fuel injection, Journal of Visualization, 13(2) (2010) 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    T. I. Mohamad, Development of a spark plug fuel injector for direct injection of methane in spark ignition engine, PhD thesis, Cranfield University, England (2006).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    A. J. Saddington, N. J. Lawson and K. Knowles, An experimental and numerical investigation of under-expanded turbulent jets, The Aeronautical journal, 108 (2004) 145–152.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Y. Li, A. Kirkpatrick, C. Mitchell and B. Willson, Characteristic and computational fluid dynamics modeling of high-pressure gas jet injection, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 126(1) (2004) 192–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. J. Jenningsn and F. R. Jeske, Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines: Part I—study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 116(4) (1994) 799–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. J. Jenningsn and F. R. Jeske, Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines: Part II—effects of injector and combustion chamber design, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 116(4) (1994) 806–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    P. G. Hill and P. Ouellette, Transient turbulent gaseous fuel jets for diesel engines, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 121(1) (1999) 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    P. G. Hill and P. Ouellette, Turbulent transient gas injections, Journal of Fluids Engineering, 122(4) (2000) 743–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. H. Kim, A. Kirkpatrick and C. Mitchell, Computational modeling of natural gas injection in a large bore engine, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 126(3) (2004) 656–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    R. Baert and A. Klaassen, Direct injection of high pressure gas: scaling properties of pulsed turbulent jets, SAE paper, Powertrains Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, San Diego, CA, USA (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    P. Ouellette, Direct injection of natural gas for diesel engine fueling, PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, Canada (1996).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    N. R. Banapurmath, P. G. Tewari and R. S. Hosmath, Experimental investigations of a four stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels, Renewable Energy, 33 (2008) 2007–2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    ANSYS FLUENT 12.0 Theory Guide (2009).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    B. Yadollahi and M. Boroomand, The effect of combustion chamber geometry on injection and mixture preparation in a CNG direct injection SI engine, Fuel (107) 2013 52–62.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    G. Papageorgakis and D. N. Assanis, Optimizing gaseous fuel-air mixing in direct injection engines using an RNG based k-e model. SAE paper, Detroit, MI, USA (1998).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    G. Settles, Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques: visualizing phenomena in transparent media, Springer, New York, USA (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    J. Canny, A computational approach to edge detection, IEEE Trans, Pattern Anal.Mach. Intell., 8(6) (1986) 679–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    B. R. Peterson, Transient high-pressure hydrogen jet measurements, MSc Thesis, University Of Wisconsin-Madison, USA (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Hajialimohammadi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amir Abdullah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mostafa AghaMirsalim
    • 1
  • Iman Chitsaz
    • 2
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.IPCO engine research centerTehranIran

Personalised recommendations