Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 205–212 | Cite as

Adaptive feedforward control of ionic polymer metal composites with disturbance cancellation

  • Seonhyeok Kang
  • Woojin Kim
  • H. Jin Kim
  • Jaegyun Park


Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are promising candidates in various sensing and actuation applications due to their light weight, large bending, and low actuation voltage requirements. However, IPMCs are still in the early stage of development, and their bending response can vary widely depending on various factors such as fabrication process, water content, temperature, and contact with electrodes. To control IPMCs in a predictable manner and to minimize the effects of plant uncertainty and external disturbances, a precise and robust control scheme is required. In the present work, a three-part adaptive feedforward control architecture is employed for IPMC deflection control. First, adaptive identification is performed to identify changes in the dynamic behavior over time and in the input voltage using a gradient descent method. Second, an adaptive feedforward controller is implemented to control the dynamic response of the plant, where the IPMC displacement is observed and is used to adjust the parameters of the controller. Third, noise and disturbance cancelling is performed using an additional adaptive canceller, which does not affect the system dynamics. Our results show that the adaptive identification and feedforward controller with disturbance cancellation using the gradient descent method provides accurate tracking performance under plant variation and disturbance. Especially, the fast convergence speed of the proposed technique makes it practical for online control.


Ionic polymer-metal composites Disturbance cancellation Adaptive feedforward control 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Shahinpoor, Conceptual design, kinematics and dynamics of swimming robotic structures using ionic polymeric gel muscles, Smart Mater. Struct., 14 (1992) 91–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    K. Oguru, Y. Kawami and H. Takenaka, Bending of an ion-conducting polymer film-electrode composite by an electric stimulus at low voltage, Trans. J. of Micicromachine Society, 5 (1992) 27–30.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Shahinpoor and K. Kim, Ionic polymer-metal composite: IV. Industrial and medical applications, Smart Mater. Struct., 14 (2005) 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    K. Kim and S. Tadokoro, Electroactive Polymers for Robotic Applications, Springer London (2007).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. Lee and K. Kim, Design of IPMC actuator-driven valve-less micropump and its flow rate estimation at low Reynolds numbers, Smart Mater. Struct., 15 (2006) 1103–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    M. Ju, P. Fung, C. Lin, Y. Hong, C. Chung and T. Wu, Cardiac Catheter With Variable Head Curvature Actuated By IPMC (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite), Proceedings of 20th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, Cleveland, OH, USA (2005).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Y. Bar-Cohen, Electroactive polymers (EAP) as actuators for potential future planetary mechanisms, NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (2004).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. Colozza, M. Shahinpoor, P. Jenkins, C. Smith, K. Isaac and T. DalBello, Solid state aircraft concept overview, Proceedings of NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (2004).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    N. Kamamichi, M. Yamakita, K. Asaka and Z. Luo, A snake-like swimming robot using IPMC actuator/sensor, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2006).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. Richardson, M. Levesley, M. Brown, J. Hawkes, K. Watterson and P. Walker, Control of ionic polymer metal composite, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 8 (2003) 245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    K. Yun and W. Kim, Microscale position control of an electroactive polymer using an anti-windup scheme, Smart Mater. Struct., 15 (2006) 924–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    K. Mallavarapu, Feedback control of ionic polymer actuators, Master’s thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2001).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    B. Lavu, M. Schoen and A. Mahajan, Adaptive intelligent control of ionic polymer-metal composites Smart Mater. Struct., 14 (2005) 466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. Bufalo, L. Placidi and M. Porfiri, A mixture theory framework for modeling the mechanical actuation of ionic polymer metal composites, Smart Mater. Struct., 17 (2008) 045010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Shahinpoor and K. Kim, Ionic polymer-metal composited: I. fundamentals, Smart Mater. Struct., 10 (2001) 819–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Kim, I. Lee and Y. Kim, Performance enhancement of IPMC actuator by plasma surface treatment, Smart Mater. Struct., 16 (2007) N6–N11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. Paquette, K. Kim, D. Kim and W. Yim, The behavior of ionic polymer-metal composites in a multi-layer configuration, Smart Mater. Struct., 14 (2005) 881–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    C. Kothera, Micro-Manipulation and Bandwidth characterization of Ionic Polymer Actuators, Master’s thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2002).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    H. Jin Kim, J. Shin, S. Kang, S. J. Kim and M. Tahk, Ionic electroactive polymer control using co-evolutionary optimization, IET Electronics Letters, 43 (2007) 859–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Kang, J. Shin, S. J. Kim, H. Jin Kim and Y. H. Kim, Robust control of ionic polymer-metal composites, Smart Mater. Struct., 16 (2007) 2457–2463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Brufau-Penella, K. Tsiakmakis, T. Laopoulos and M. Puig-Vidal, Model reference adaptive control for an ionic polymer metal composite in underwater applications, Smart Mater. Struct., 17 (2008) 045020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    G. L. Plett, Adaptivce inverse control of unmodeled stable SISO and MIMO linear systems, International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 16 (2002) 243–272.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    N. Bhat and W. J. Kim, Precision force and position control of an ionic polymer metal composite, Proc. of the IMechE Part I: J. Systems and Control Engineering, 16 (2004) 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringDankook UniversityYonginKorea

Personalised recommendations