Skip to main content
Log in

Impact of Jet-Grouting Pressure on the Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Sandy and Clayey Soils in the Compression Zone

  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Published:
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering Aims and scope

Abstract

Jet-grouting as a soil improvement method is extensively preferred in today’s civil engineering practice. High-modulus grout columns constructed by extremely high jetting pressures displace the surrounding soil causing a densification in soil particles. Accordingly, the strength as well as the deformation characteristics of subsurface soils are relatively improved across the compression zone which is under the influence of high jetting pressure. In this study, the modification of soil properties in compression zone after jet-grouting in sandy and clayey soils is investigated by standard penetration tests (SPT) and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) performed at a couple of construction sites along established jet-grout column rows. The in-situ test results point out significant improvement of the measured parameters compared to initial values. The rate of enhancement in the compression zone is higher in sandy strata than that of clayey deposits. The strengthening of soil due to jetting pressure is validated by finite element analyses as well. Furthermore, very low shear strain values are obtained in clayey soils with respect to the improved characteristics of compression zone representing extremely low shear deformation under foundation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Akin, M. K. (2016). “Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silly soils.” Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 116, pp. 190–197, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.01.011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akin, M., Akin, M. K., Akkaya, İ., Özvan, A., and Şengül, A. (2015b). “Erciş (Van) yerleşim alanındaki zeminlerin sıvılaşma potansiyelinin değerlendirilmesi.” 2015 Ulusal Mühendislik Jeolojisi Sempozyumu (MUHJEO’2015), Bildiri Kitabı, Trabzon, Türkiye, pp. 208–215 (in Turkish).

    Google Scholar 

  • Akin, M., Akin, M. K., Çiftçi, A., and Bayram, B. B. (2015a). “The effect of jet-grouting on the cyclic stress ratio (CSR) for the mitigation of liquefaction.” Electronic Journal of Occupational Improvement and Research (EJOIR), IWCEA Special Publication, Vol. 1, pp. 9–20, ISSN: 2147-8503.

    Google Scholar 

  • Akkaya, İ. (2015). “The application of HVSR microtremor survey method in Yüksekova (Hakkari) region, Eastern Turkey.” Journal of African Earth Sciences, Vol. 109, pp. 87–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akkaya, İ., Şengül, A., Özvan, A., and Tapan, M. (2013). “Yüksekova (Hakkari) bölgesinin depremselliği ve sismik tehlike analizleri.” İstanbul Yerbilimleri Dergisi, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey, Vol. 26, pp. 39–51 (in Turkish).

    Google Scholar 

  • Alkaya, D., Çobanoğlu, İ., Yeşil, B., and Yıldız, M. Ş. (2011). “The evaluation of stone column and jet-grouting soil improvement with seismic refraction method: Example of Poti (Georgia) railway.” International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 28, pp. 6565–6571, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/IJPS11.894.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bearce, R. G., Mooney, M. A., and Kessouri, P. (2015). “Estimation of jet-grout column geometry using a DC electrical resistivity push probe.” International Symposium of Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE), Berlin, Germany, Vol. 1, pp. 15–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bouassida, M., Ellouze, S., Salem, Z. B., and Znaidi, M. N. (2013). “Numerical study of the behaviour of improved soft clay by stone column.” Foundation and Soft Ground Engineering Conference, Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong, Vietnam, pp. 55–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowles, J. E. (1988). Foundation analyses and design. Mc Graw-Hill. New York, NY, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Building Seismic Safety Council (2003). NEHRP Recommended Provisions for seismic Regulations for New buildings and other Structures, Part1: Provisions, FEMA 368, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C., USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bzówka, J. (2004). “Computational model for jet-grouting pile — soil interaction.” Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica, Vol. 16, pp. 48–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bzówka, J. (2012). “Analysis of bearing capacity and settlement of jet-grouting columns.” Architecture Civil Engineering Environment, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 41–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chepurnova, A. (2014). “Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings.” Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 105–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Croce, P., Flora, A., and Modoni, G (2014). Jet-grouting-technology: design and control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, p. 283.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Dikmen, Ü., Arisoy, M. Ö., and Akkaya, İ. (2010). “Offset and linear spread geometry in MASW method.” Journal of Geophysical and Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 211–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fang, Y., Liao, J., and Lin, T. (1994). “Mechanical properties of jet-grouted soilcrete.” Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydrogeol., Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 257–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fang, Y. S., Kuo, L. Y., and Wang, D. R. (2004). “Properties of soilcrete stabilized with jet-grouting.” Proc. The 14th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Toulon, France, pp. 696–702.

  • Flora, A., Modoni, G., Lirer, S., and Croce, P. (2013). “The diameter of single, double and triple fluid jet-grouting columns: Prediction method and field trial results.” Géotechnique, Vol. 63, No. 11, pp. 934–945.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gladkov, I. L., Malinin, A. G., and Zhemchugov, A. A. (2011). “Strength and deformation characteristics of soil-concrete as a function of jet-grouting parameters.” Geotechnical Engineering: New Horizons, Proc. The 21st European Young Geotechnical Engineers’ Conference Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 75–78.

  • Greenwood, D. A. (1970). “Mechanical improvement of soils below ground surfaces.” Proc. Ground Engineering Conference. Institution of Civil Engineers, London, UK, pp. 11–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juge, B. L. (2012). Elastic properties of jet-grouted ground and applications. MSc Thesis, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, USA, p. 112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juzwa, A. and Bzówka, J. (2016). “Numerical simulations of settlement of jet-grouting columns.” De Gruyter Open Civil Engineering Series, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 19–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kramer, S. L. (1996). Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, p. 653.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishna, A. M. and Madhav, M. R. (2009). “Treatment of loose to medium dense sands by granular piles: Improved SPT “N1” values.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 455–459, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-008-9237-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lunardi, P. (1997). “Ground improvement by means of jet-grouting.” Ground Improvement, Vol. 1, pp. 65–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madhav, M. R. and Krishna, A. M. (2008). Liquefaction mitigation of sand deposits by granular piles-an overview, Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation: Proc. The 2nd International Conference GEDMAR08, Nanjing, China, pp. 66–79.

  • McCarthy, D. F. (2007). Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Basic Geotechnics. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, p. 850.

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller, M. (2004). “Foundation strengthening and grouting by means of jet piles for a 9+1-storey building with strengthened-concrete framing.” Periodica Polytechnica Ser. Civ. Eng., Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 145–167.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nikbakhtan, B. and Ahangari, K. (2010). “Field study of the influence of various jet-grouting parameters on soilcrete unconfined compressive strength and its diameter.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 685–689, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2010.03.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ochmanski, M., Modoni, G., and Bzówka, J. (2015). “Prediction of the diameter of jet-grout columns with artificial neural networks.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 425–436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Özsoy, B. and Durgunoğlu, H. T. (2003). “The mitigation of liquefaction by means of high-modulus columns.” Fifth Turkish National EEC, Istanbul, Turkey (in Turkish).

  • Özvan, A., Şengül, M. A., and Tapan, M. (2008). “Van Gölü havzası Neojen çökellerinin jeoteknik özelliklerine bir bakış: Erciş yerleşkesi.” Geosound, Vol. 52, pp. 297–310 (in Turkish).

    Google Scholar 

  • Park, C. B., Miller, R. D., and Xia, J. (1999). “Multichannel analysis of surface waves.” Geophysics, Vol. 64, pp. 800–808.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Passlick, T. and Doerendahl, K. (2006). “Quality assurance in jet-grouting for a deep-seated slab in Amsterdam.” Conference on Piling and Deep Foundations, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Technical Paper 68-55E.

  • Poh, T. Y. and Wong, I. H. (2001). “A field trial of jet-grouting in marine clay.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 38, pp. 338–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rocscience Inc. (2017). RS2 Version 9.0 — Finite Element Analysis for Excavations and Slopes. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, www.rocscience.com.

  • Sağlamer, A., Düzceer, R., Gökalp, A., and Yılmaz, E. (2002). “Ground improvement by jet-grout columns for the foundations of an automobile plant in Turkey.” Proc. The International Deep Foundations Congress, Orlando, FL, USA, p. 116.

  • Selçuk, L. and Kayabali, K. (2015). “The design of stone column applications to protect against soil liquefaction.” International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 279–288, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/1939787914Y.0000000063.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shen, S. L., Wang, Z. F., and Cheng, W. C. (2017). “Estimation of lateral displacement induced by jet-grouting in clayey soils.” Geotechnique, ICE, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1680/geot./16-P-159.

  • Shen, S. L., Wang, Z. F., Yang, J., and Ho, C. E. (2013). “Generalized approach for prediction of jet-grout column diameter.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 139, pp. 2060–2069.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stuedlein, A., Abdollahi, A., Mason, H., and French, R. (2015). “Shear wave velocity measurements of stone column improved ground and effect on site response.” IFCEE 2015, San Antonio, TX, USA, pp. 2306–2317, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784479087.214.

  • Tinoco, J., Gomes Correia, A., and Cortez, P. (2011). “Application of data mining techniques in the estimation of the uniaxial compressive strength of jet-grouting columns over time.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 1257–1262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Z. F., Shen, S. L., Ho, E. C., and Kim, Y. H. (2013). “Investigation of field installation effects of horizontal twin-jet-grouting in Shanghai soft soil deposits.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 288–297.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Z. F., Shen, S. L., Ho, E. C., and Xu, Y. S. (2014). “Jet-grouting for mitigation of installation disturbance.” Geotechnical Engineering, ICE Proceedings, Vol. 167, No. GE6, pp. 526–536.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, Z. F., Shen, S. L., and Xie, Y. L. (2016). “Analysis of soil deformation caused by installation of horizontal jet-grout column.” Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 1083–1088.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wong, I. H. and Poh, T. Y. (2000). “Effects of jet-grouting on adjacent ground and structures.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 3, pp. 247–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the Scientific Research Projects Office of Yüzüncü Yıl University (YYU-BAP, Project Number 2015 HIZ-MIM281). Geophysical Engineer Sedat Damar is greatly acknowledged for his efforts during MASW studies. The authors are also grateful to a couple of anonymous reviewers whose comments have significantly improved the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mutluhan Akin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Akin, M., Akkaya, İ., Akin, M.K. et al. Impact of Jet-Grouting Pressure on the Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Sandy and Clayey Soils in the Compression Zone. KSCE J Civ Eng 23, 3340–3352 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-019-2274-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-019-2274-5

Keywords

Navigation