Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 2017–2024 | Cite as

A Simplified Approach for Estimating Settlement of Soft Clay under Vacuum Consolidation

  • Sandeep BhosleEmail author
  • Devendra Kumar Verma
  • Vivek Balwantrao Deshmukh
Geotechnical Engineering
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

In general, the ground improvement by Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) consolidation involves a high magnitude of settlement, which results in a change in the consolidation characteristic of the soil during the process of consolidation. Under such circumstances, the consolidation problem must be treated as a large strain problem. The large strain 3-Dimensional consolidation analysis requires a large number of parameters, making it difficult for practicing engineers to carry out such analysis for a practical application. This paper aims to provide a simplified method for estimation of settlement during 3D vacuum consolidation using a single parameter, the coefficient of horizontal Consolidation (Ch). For this, the variation in Ch during the 3D consolidation was back-calculated using Hansbo’s method from a series of large-scale 3D vacuum consolidation tests carried on reconstituted marine clay. As the varying Ch cannot be employed in available analytical models, a simplified finite element analysis is presented to employ varying Ch. The estimated settlement was further compared with settlement obtained utilizing constant Ch, by trial and error method. The paper also demonstrates a potential advantage of the proposed method that the variation in Ch can also be determined from 3D consolidation carried out previously for similar strata, as it requires only basic data, which are usually available.

Keywords

3D-Consolidation large strain consolidation Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) Finite Element Method (FEM) pore water pressure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asaoka, A. (1978). “Observational procedure of settlement prediction.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 87–101, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.18.4_87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barron, R. A. (1948). “Consolidation of fine grained soils by drainwells.” Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 113, No. 1, pp. 718–742.Google Scholar
  3. Bhosle, S. and Deshmukh, V. (2018). “Experimental studies on soft marine clay under combined vacuum and surcharge preloading with PVD.” International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 1–10, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/19386362.2018.1496004.Google Scholar
  4. Castaldo, P., Calvello, M., and Palazzo, B. (2013). “Probabilistic analysis of excavation-induced damages to existing structures.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 53, pp. 17–30, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.COMPGEO.2013.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castaldo, P., Jalayer, F., and Palazzo, B. (2018). “Probabilistic assessment of groundwater leakage in diaphragm wall joints for deep excavations.” Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol. 71, pp. 531–543, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TUST.2017.10.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chai, J. and Carter, J. P. (2011). Deformation analysis in soft ground improvement, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chai, J., Hong, Z., and Shen, S. (2010). “Vacuum-drain consolidation induced pressure distribution and ground deformation.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 525–535, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2010.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis, E. H. and Raymond, G. P. (1965). “A non-linear theory of consolidation.” Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhar, A. S., Siddiquee, A., and Ameen, S. F. (2011). “Ground improvement using pre-loading with prefabricated vertical drains.” International Journal of Geoengineering Case Histories, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 86–104, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4417/IJGCH-02-02-01.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, P. J., Di Nicola, M., and Quigley, D. W. (2003). “Piecewise-linear model for large strain radial consolidation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 10, pp. 940–950, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2003)129:10(940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gangaputhiran, S., Robinson, R. G., and Karpurapu, R. (2016). “Properties of soil after surcharge or vacuum preloading.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, Vol. 169, No. 3, pp. 217–230, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1680/jgrim.15.00028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghandeharioon, A., Indraratna, B., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2012). “Laboratory and finite-element investigation of soil disturbance associated with the installation of mandrel-driven prefabricated vertical drains.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 3, pp. 295–308, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibson, R. E., England, G. E., and Hussey, M. J. L. (1967). “The theory of one-dimensional consolidation of saturated clays. Part I: Finite nonlinear consolidation of thin homogeneous layers.” Geotechnique, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibson, R. E., Schiffman, R. L., and Cargill, K. W. (1981). “The theory of one-dimensional consolidation of saturated clays. Part II: Finite nonlinear consolidation of thick homogeneous layers.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansbo, S. (1979). “Consolidation of clay by band-shaped prefabricated drains.” Ground Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 16–25.Google Scholar
  16. Hansbo, S. (1981). “Consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated drains.” 10th ICSMFE, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 677–681.Google Scholar
  17. Indraratna, B. and Redana, I. W. (1998). “Laboratory determination of smear zone due to vertical drain installation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 180–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Indraratna, B., Zhong, R., Fox, P. J., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2017). “Large-strain vacuum-assisted consolidation with non-darcian radial flow incorporating varying permeability and compressibility.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 1, p. 04016088, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Indraratna, B., Zhong, R., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2016). “An analytical model of PVD-assisted soft ground consolidation.” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 143, pp. 1376–1383, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jie, P., Han-long, L. I. U., and Yong-hui, C. (2003). “Mechanism of foundation strengthening by vacuum-surcharge preloading method.” Journal of Hohai University (Natural Sciences), Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 560–563.Google Scholar
  21. Kjellman, W. (1952). “Consolidation of clay soil by means of atmospheric pressure.” Proceedings of Conference on Soil Stabilization, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, pp. 258–263.Google Scholar
  22. Mesri, G. and Khan, A. Q. (2012). “Ground improvement using vacuum loading together with vertical drains.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 6, pp. 680–689, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mesri, G. and Olson, R. E. (1971). “Mechanism controlling the permeability of clays.” Clays and Minerals, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mesri, G. and Rokshar, A. (1974). “Theory of consolidation for clays.” Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. GT8, No. 100, pp. 889–904.Google Scholar
  25. Parsa-Pajouh, A., Fatahi, B., Vincent, P., and Khabbaz, H. (2014). “Analyzing consolidation data to predict smear zone characteristics induced by vertical drain installation for soft soil improvement.” Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 105–131, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2014.7.1.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Robinson, R. G., Indraratna, B., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2012). “Final state of soils under vacuum preloading.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 729–739, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1139/t2012-024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rujikiatkamjorn, C. and Indraratna, B. (2006). “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of soft soil consolidation improved by prefabricated vertical drains.” GeoShanghai International Conference 2006, ASCE, Shanghai, China, GSP (152), pp. 161–168.Google Scholar
  28. Rujikiatkamjorn, C. and Indraratna, B. (2007). “Analysis of radial vacuum-assisted consolidation using 3D finite element method.” Advances in Measurement and Modeling of Soil Behavior, GSP (173), DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/40917(236)12.Google Scholar
  29. Samarasinghe, A. M., Huang, Y. H., and Drnevich, V. P. (1982). “Permeability and consolidation of normally consolidated soils.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. GT6, No. 108, pp. 835–880.Google Scholar
  30. Saowapakpiboon, J., Bergado, D. T., Voottipruex, P., Lam, L. G., and Nakakuma, K. (2011). “PVD improvement combined with surcharge and vacuum preloading including simulations.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 74–82, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2010.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sathananthan, I. and Indraratna, B. (2006). “Laboratory evaluation of smear zone and correlation between permeability and moisture content.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 7, pp. 942–945, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:7(942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shen, S., Chai, J., Hong, Z., and Cai, F. (2005). “Analysis of field performance of embankments on soft clay deposit with and without PVD-improvement.” Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 463–485, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2005.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shi, J.-Y., Lei, G., Ai, Y.-B., Wei, D., and Song, X.-W. (2006). “Research of settlement calculation for vacuum preloading.” Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 365–368.Google Scholar
  34. Tavenas, F., Jean, P., Leblond, P., and Leroueil, S. (1983). “The permeability of natural soft clays. Part II: Permeability Characteristics.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 645–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Taylor, D. W. (1948). Fundamentals of soil mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Terzgahi, K. (1943). Theoretical Soil Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Walker, R. and Indraratna, B. (2006). “Vertical drain consolidation with parabolic distribution of permeability in smear zone.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 7, pp. 937–941, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:7(937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu, H. and Hu, L. (2013). “Numerical model of soft ground improvement by vertical drain combined with vacuum preloading.” Journal of Central South University, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 2066–2071, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-013-1708-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xie, K. and Leo, C. (2004). “Analytical solutions of one-dimensional large strain consolidation of saturated and homogeneous clays.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 301–314, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2004.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandeep Bhosle
    • 1
    Email author
  • Devendra Kumar Verma
    • 1
  • Vivek Balwantrao Deshmukh
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Structural EngineeringVeermata Jijabai Technological InstituteMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations