Matric Suction Creep Characteristics of Reticulated Red Clay

  • Jianzhong Li
  • Yuanli Yang
Geotechnical Engineering


Matric suction creep is the creep of unsaturated soil caused by loading constant matric suction. Matric suction creep characteristics of reticulated red clay with constant net confing pressure and step-loading matric suction was studied using stress-controlling unsaturated triaxial test apparatus. Test and analysis results show that: (1) with constant net confining pressure, axial and radial strain of the clay caused by creep due to matric suction increases obviously; (2) the increments of axial strain of the clay, caused by creep due to matric suction under constant net confining pressure, is not the same as that of radial strain, and the absolute value of radial strain is bigger than that of axial strain; (3) creep strain produced by the same amount of matric suction decreases as the increasing of the matric suction during step loading creep, which means that matric suction makes the clay hard; and (4) the creep strain-time curves of both axial and radial creep can be simulated very well by exponential decay function, and the parameters of the function are matric suction depend obviously.


matric suction creep laboratory analysis soil behavior reticulated red clay 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Azari, B., Fatahi, B., and Khabbaz, H. (2015). “Numerical analysis of vertical drains accelerated consolidation considering combined soil disturbance and visco-plastic behaviour.” Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 187–220, DOI: 10.12989/gae.2015.8.2.187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilotta, E., Foresta, V., and Migliaro, G. (2008). “The influence of suction on stiffness, viscosity and collapse of some volcanic ashy soils.” 1st European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Durham, England, Vol. 1, pp. 349–354, DOI: 10.1201/9780203884430.ch43.Google Scholar
  3. Bishop, A. W. (1969). “Creep characteristics of two undisturbed clays.” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics, Mexico, Vol. 1, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  4. Bodas Freitas, T. M., Potts, D. M., and Zdravkovic, L. (2011). “A time dependent constitutive model for soils with isotach viscosity.” Computers and Geotechnics, No. 38, pp. 809–820, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2011.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonaparte, R. (1981). A Time-dependent constitutive model for cohesive soil. Ph.D. Dissertation, Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  6. Borja, R. I., Hseih, H. S., and Kavazanjian, Jr. E. (1990). “Double-yield surface model.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 116, No. 9, pp. 1402–1421, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9410(1990)116:9(1402).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandes, H. G. and Nakayama, D. D. (2010). “Creep, strength and other characteristics of Hawaiian volcanic soils.” Geotechnique, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 235–245, DOI: 10.1680/geot.8.p.117.3277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Gennaro, V. A. and Pereira, J. M. (2013). “Viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated geomaterials.” Computers and Geotechnics, No. 54, pp. 143–151, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Gennaro, V., Delage, P., and Cui, Y. J. (2003). “Time-dependent behavior of oil reservoir chalk: A multiphase approach.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 131–147, DOI: 10.3208/sandf.43.4_131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng, J., Nawir, H., and Tatsuoka, F. (2011). “Effects of viscous property and wetting on 1-D compression of clay and model simulation.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 897–913, DOI: 10.3208/ sandf.51.897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enomoto, T., Koseki, J., Tatsuoka, F., and Sato, T. (2016). “Creep failure of natural gravelly soil and its simulation.” Geotechnique, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 865–877, DOI: 10.1680/jgeot.15.p.144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goto, S., Tatsuoka, F., Shibuya, S., Kim, Y., and Sato, T. (1991). “A simple gauge for local small strain measurements in the laboratory.” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 169–180, DOI: 10.3208/ sandf1972.31.169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kavazanjian, Jr. E. and Mitchell, J. K. (1980). “Time-dependent deformation behavior of clays.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 106, No. 6, pp. 611–630, DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(81)90332-6.Google Scholar
  14. Kierzkowski, P. (2007). “Oedometer creep tests of a partially saturated kaolinite clay.” Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Mechanics of Unsaturated Soils, Weimar, Germany, Vol. 112, pp. 301–307, DOI: 10.1007/3-540-69873-6_30.Google Scholar
  15. Li, J. and Xie, Y. (2012). “Creep property of undisturbed reticulate red clay under constant-load creep test.” 2nd International Conference on Civil Engineering and Building Materials, Hong Kong, China, Vol. 1, pp. 489–492, DOI: 10.1201/b13165-102.Google Scholar
  16. Li, J. and Yang, Y. (2017b). “Creep behavior of unsaturated reticulate red clay under matric suction.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, (Online First), pp. 1–6, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0092-1.Google Scholar
  17. Li, J., Cao, Y., and Qin, Y. (2012). “Creep property of reticulate red clay under stepped-load creep tests.” Advanced Material Research, Vol. 446-449, pp. 1412–1416, DOI: 10.4028/ Scholar
  18. Li, J., Hao, K., and Peng, F. (2017a). “Research on suction equilibrium time of unsaturated reticulate red clay.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, (Online First), pp. 1–7, DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-1792-2.Google Scholar
  19. Li, J., Peng, F., and Xu, L. (2009). “One-dimensional viscous behavior of clay and its constitutive modeling.” International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 43–51, DOI: 10.1061/(asce)1532-3641(2009)9:2(43).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, J., Wu, D., and Wang, Y. (2016). “Suction characteristics of unsaturated reticulate red clay.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 21, Bund. 25, pp. 10017–10028.Google Scholar
  21. Liu, J., Liu, W., Liu, P., Yang, C., Xie, Q., and Liu, Y. (2016). “Preliminary research on the theory and application of unsaturated Red-layers embankment settlement based on rheology and consolidation theory.” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 503–523, DOI: 0.1007/s12665-016-5313-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mitchell, J. K. and Soga, K. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior (Third Edition). John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, pp. 465–478.Google Scholar
  23. Singh, A. and Mitchell, J. K. (1968). “General stress-strain-time function for soils.” Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, No. 94, pp. 21–46, DOI: 10.1016/0022-4898(68)90146-8.Google Scholar
  24. Sivasithamparam, N., Karstunen, M., and Bonnier, P. (2015) “Modelling creep behaviour of anisotropic soft soils.” Computers and Geotechnics, Vol. 69, pp. 46–57, DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2015.04.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Taylor, D. W. (1948). Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics, Wiley, United States, pp. 288–292.Google Scholar
  26. Vyalov, S. S. (1969). “Creep and long-term strength of soils subjected to variable load.” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Soil Mechanics, Mexico, Vol. 1, pp. 423–431.Google Scholar
  27. Vyalov, S. S. (1986). Rheological fundamentals of soil mechanics. Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 7–9.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang, S. M. and Lai, X. L. (2010). “Unsaturated creep tests and empirical models of the sliding zone soils of the Qianjiangping Landslide in Three Gorges.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Modelling and Computation in Engineering, Hong Kong, China, Vol. 1, pp. 107–112, DOI: 10.1201/b10025-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ye, W., Lai, X., Wang, Q., Chen, Y., Chen, B., and Cui, Y. (2014). “An experimental investigation on the secondary compression of unsaturated GMZ01 bentonite.” Applied Clay Science, Vols. 97-98, pp. 104–109, DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2014.05.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geosciences and Info-PhysicsCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Hunan Water Resources and Hydropower Research InstituteChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations