As a part of design process for hydro-electric generating stations, hydraulic engineers typically conduct some form of model testing. The desired outcome from the testing can vary considerably depending on the specific situation, but often characteristics such as velocity patterns, discharge rating curves, water surface profiles, and pressures at various locations are measured. Due to recent advances in computational power and numerical techniques, it is now also possible to obtain much of this information through numerical modeling. In this paper, hydraulic characteristics of Kavsak Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP), which are under construction and built for producing energy in Turkey, were investigated experimentally by physical model studies. The 1/50-scaled physical model was used in conducting experiments. Flow depth, discharge and pressure data were recorded for different flow conditions. Serious modification was made on the original project with the experimental study. In order to evaluate the capability of the computational fluid dynamics on modeling spillway flow a comparative study was made by using results obtained from physical modeling and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. A commercially available CFD program, which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, was used to model the numerical model setup by defining cells where the flow is partially or completely restricted in the computational space. Discharge rating curves, velocity patterns and pressures were used to compare the results of the physical model and the numerical model. It was shown that there is reasonably good agreement between the physical and numerical models in flow characteristics.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bureau of Reclamation (1977). Design of small dams, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Bureau of Reclamation (1990). Cavitation in chute and spillways, Engineering Monograph, No.42, U.S.
Chanel, P. G. (2008). An evaluation of computational fluid dynamics for spillway modeling, MSc Thesis, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Chanson, H. (2002). The hydraulics of stepped chutes and spillways, Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands.
Chanson, H. and Gonzalez, C. A. (2005). “Physical modeling and scale effects of air-water flows on stepped spillways.” Journal of Zhejiang University Science, Vol. 6A, No. 3, pp. 243–250.
Demiroz, E. (1986). “Specifications of aeration structures which are added to the spillways.” DSI Report, HI-754, DSI-TAKK Publications, Ankara, Turkey.
Erfanain-Azmoudeh, M. H. and Kamanbedast, A. A. (2013). “Determine the appropriate location of aerator system on gotvandoliadam's spillway using Flow 3D.” American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 378–383, DOI: 10.5829/idosiaejaes.2013. 13.03. 458.
Falvey, H. T. (1990). Cavitation in chutes and spillways, Engineering Monograph 42 Water Resources Technical Publication US Printing Office, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver.
Flow-3D User’s Manual (2012). Flow science, Inc., Santa Fe, N.M.
Hirt, C. W. (1992). “Volume-fraction techniques: Powerful tools for flow modeling.” Flow Science Report, No. FSI-92–00-02, Flow Science, Inc., Santa Fe, N.M.
Hirt C. W. and Nichols B. D. (1981). “Volume of Fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries.” Jornal of Computational Physics, Vol. 39, pp. 201–225, DOI: 10.1016/0021–9991(81)90145–5.
Hirt, C. W. and Sicilian, J. M. (1985). “A Porosity technique for the definition of obstacles in rectangular cell meshes.” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ship Hydro-dynamics, 24–27 September 1985, National Academic of Sciences, Washington DC.
Ho, D., Boyes, K., Donohoo, S., and Cooper, B. (2003). “Numerical flow analysis for spillways.” 43rd ANCOLD Conference, Hobart, Tasmania.
Johnson, M. C. and Savage, B. M. (2006). “Physical and numerical comparison of flow over ogee spillway in the presence of tailwater.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 12, pp. 1353–135, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733–9429.
Kim, S. D., Lee, H. J., and An, S. D. (2010). “Improvement of hydraulic stability for spillway using CFD model.” Int. Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 774–780.
Kokpinar, M. A. and Gogus, M. (2002). “High speed jet flows over spillway aerators.” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 885–898, DOI: 10.1139/l02–088.
Kumcu, S. Y. (2010). Hydraulic model studies of Kavsak Dam and HEPP, DSI Report, HI-1005, DSI-TAKK Publications, Ankara, Turkey.
Margeirsson, B. (2007). Computational modeling of flow over a spillway, MSc Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Nichols, B. D. and Hirt, C. W. (1975). “Methods for calculating multidimensional, transient free surface flows past bodies.” Proc. First Intern. Conf. Num., Ship Hydrodynamics, Gaithersburg, ML.
Savage, B. M. and Johnson, M. C. (2001). “Flow over ogee spillway: Physical and numerical model case study.” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 127, No. 8, pp. 640–649, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733–9429.
Souders, D. T. and Hirt, C. W. (2004). “Modeling entrainment of air at turbulent free surfaces.” Critical Transitions in Water and Environmental resources Management, pp. 1–10.
entürk, F. (1994). Hydraulics of dams and reservoirs, Water Resources Publication Colorado, USA.
Teklemariam, E., Korbaylo, B, Groeneveld, J., Sydor, K., and Fuchs, D. (2001). Optimization of hydraulic design using computational fluid dynamics, Waterpower XII, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Teklemariam, E., Shumilak, B., Sydor, K., Murray, D., Fuchs, D., and Holder, G. (2008). “An integral approach using both physical and computational modeling can be beneficial in addressing the full range of hydraulic design issues.” CDA Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Canada.
Usta, E. (2014). Numerical investigation of hydraulic characteristics of Laleli Dam spillway and comparison with physical model study, Master Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
Versteeg, H. K. and Malalasekera, W. (1996). An introduction to computational fluid dynamics, Longman Scientific and Technical, Longman Group Limited, Harlow, England.
Vischer, D. L. and Hager, W. H. (1997). Dam hydraulics, J. Wiley & Sons Ltd., England.
Wagner, W. E. (1967). “Glen Canyon diversion tunnel outlets.” J. Hydraulic Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. HY6, pp. 113–134.
Willey, J., Ewing, T., Wark, B., and Lesleighter, E. (2012). Complementary use of physical and numerical modeling techniques in spillway design refinement, Commission Internationale Des Grands Barrages, Kyoto, June 2012.
About this article
Cite this article
Kumcu, S.Y. Investigation of flow over spillway modeling and comparison between experimental data and CFD analysis. KSCE J Civ Eng 21, 994–1003 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-016-1257-z
- dam structures
- spilllway modeling
- CFD anaysis
- numerical model
- physical model