Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 132–137 | Cite as

Effect of Skin on Finite Element Modeling of Foot and Ankle During Balanced Standing

  • Haihua Ou (欧海华)
  • Zeeshan Qaiser
  • Liping Kang (康利平)
  • Shane Johnson
Article

Abstract

Experimental measurements of stresses and strains for lower extremity injuries (LEI) are invasive, and therefore, predictions require physiologically accurate 3D finite element (FE) models of the foot and ankle. In previous models, skin is typically neglected. However, experimental studies have shown that skin is much stiffer than soft tissue. In this study, the material sensitivity of skin on foot arch deformation is investigated. A finite element model of the foot is developed, incorporating bones, soft tissue, ligament, articulating surfaces, plantar aponeurosis, skin and plantar plate. Balanced standing is simulated without skin or with three different skin mechanical properties. By including different skin models, the foot static vertical stiffness, navicular displacement and plantar aponeurosis strain change significantly, when compared with the model without skin. The study shows that skin, showing a much stiffer behaviour than soft tissue, should not be neglected in the foot modelling. Further, the plantar plate considered in this model can give merit to modelling injuries such as plantar plate tearing.

Key words

finite element analysis foot and ankle hyperelastic material plantar plate 

CLC number

Q 61 

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Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors thanks to Dr. WANG Dongmei from Mechanical Engineering School in Shanghai Jiao Tong University for providing genuine advice and the geometry files of the developed finite element model.

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Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiaotong University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haihua Ou (欧海华)
    • 1
  • Zeeshan Qaiser
    • 1
  • Liping Kang (康利平)
    • 1
  • Shane Johnson
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Michigan - Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint InstituteShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and VibrationShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

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