Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 122–131 | Cite as

Estimation of Load-Induced Damage and Repair Cost in Post-Tensioned Concrete Rocking Walls

  • Abouzar Jafari
  • Roberto Dugnani


Post-tensioned concrete rocking walls might be used to avoid severe seismic damage at the base of structural walls, decrease residual drift, and lessen post-earthquake repair costs. The prediction of load-induced damage to the rocking wall resulting from seismic loading can provide an extremely valuable tool to evaluate the status and safety of structural concrete walls following earthquakes. In this study, the behavior and the damage state of monolithic, self-centering, rocking walls, as a new type of concrete rocking wall, are investigated. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the wall is first modeled numerically, and subsequently the mechanical parameters from the numerical simulation are used to generate the local damage index. The results from the damage index model are compared with the full-scale test results, confirming the viability of the numerically based damage index method for estimating the seismically induced damage in concrete walls. Moreover, the estimated damage can be utilized as a qualitative and quantitative scale to assess the status of the wall following seismic loading events. Finally, an equation is proposed to estimate the repair cost based on the predicted damage state for the studied structural system.

Key words

rocking walls damage index damage estimation repair cost post-tensioning (PT) 

CLC number

TU 312 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    AJRAB J J, PEKCAN G, MANDER J B. Rocking wall-frame structures with supplemental tendon systems [J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, 130(6): 895–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    HOLDEN T, RESTREPO J, MANDER J B. Seismic performance of precast reinforced and prestressed concrete walls [J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2003, 129(3): 286–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    PRIESTLEY M N, TAO J R. Seismic response of precast prestressed concrete frames with partially debonded tendons [J]. PCI Journal, 1993, 38(1): 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    PRIESTLEY M N, MACRAE G A. Seismic tests of precast beam-to-column joint subassemblages with unbonded tendons [J]. PCI Journal, 1996, 41(1): 64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    KURAMA Y, SAUSE R, PESSIKI S, et al. Lateral load behavior and seismic design of unbonded posttensioned precast concrete walls [J]. Structural Journal, 1999, 96(4): 622–632.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    BOROSCHEK R L, YÁNEZ F V. Experimental verification of basic analytical assumptions used in the analysis of structural wall buildings [J]. Engineering Structures, 2000, 22(6): 657–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    YOOPRASERTCHAI E, HADIWIJAYA I J, WARNITCHAI P. Seismic performance of precast concrete rocking walls with buckling restrained braces [J]. Magazine of Concrete Research, 2016, 68(9): 462–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    RESTREPO J I, RAHMAN A. Seismic performance of self-centering structural walls incorporating energy dissipators [J]. Journal of Structural Engineering-Asce, 2007, 133(11): 1560–1570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    PEREZ F J, SAUSE R, PESSIKI S. Analytical and experimental lateral load behavior of unbonded posttensioned precast concrete walls [J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2007, 133(11): 1531–1540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    AALETI S, SRITHARAN S. A simplified analysis method for characterizing unbonded post-tensioned precast wall systems [J]. Engineering Structures, 2009, 31(12): 2966–2975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    ERKMEN B, SCHULTZ A E. Self-centering behavior of unbonded, post-tensioned precast concrete shear walls [J]. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2009, 13(7): 1047–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    HASSANLI R, ELGAWADY M A, MILLS J E. Forcedisplacement behavior of unbonded post-tensioned concrete walls [J]. Engineering Structures, 2016, 106: 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    PRETI M, MARINI A, METELLI G, et al. Full scale experimental investigation on a prestressed rocking structural wall with unbonded steel dowels as shear keys [C]// Proceedings of the 13th Conference ANIDIS on Earthquake Engineering. Bologna, Italy: [s.n.], 2009: 1–4.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    PRETI M, GIURIANI E. 2012. Full scale experimental investigation on seismic structural walls[C]//Fifteenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Lisbon, Portugal: [s.n.], 2012: 1–4.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    PRETI M, MEDA A. RC structural wall with unbonded tendons strengthened with high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete [J]. Materials and Structures, 2015, 48(1/2): 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    LU X, DANG X, QIAN J, et al. Experimental study of self-centering shear walls with horizontal bottom slits [J]. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2017, 143(3): 04016183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    JAFARI A, GHASEMI M R, BENGAR H A, et al. Seismic performance and damage incurred by monolithic concrete self-centering rocking walls under the effect of axial stress ratio [J]. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2017(12):1–28.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    LAURSEN P P T. Seismic analysis and design of posttensioned concrete masonry walls [D]. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Computers and Structures Inc. PERFORM components and elements for PERFORM-3D and PERFORMCOLLAPSE [M]. Berkeley, California, USA: Computers and Structures Inc., 2011.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    KAPPOS A J. Analytical prediction of the collapse earthquake for R/C buildings: Suggested methodology [J]. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 1991, 20(2): 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    HASSANI B, JAFARI A. An investigation on the seismic performance of reinforced concrete panel structures [J]. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing), 2012, 13(2): 181–193.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE). Seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing buildings: ASCE/SEI 41–13 [S]. Reston, Virginia, USA: ASCE, 2013.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    ESFANDIARI A. Shear strength of structural concrete members using a uniform shear element approach [D]. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia, 2009.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    WALSH K Q, KURAMA Y C. Behavior and design of unbounded post-tensioning strand/anchorage systems for seismic applications[R]. Indiana, USA: University of Notre Dame, 2009.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    STONE W C, TAYLOR A W. Seismic performance of circular bridge columns designed in accordance with AASHTO/CALTRANS standards [R]. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: National Institute of Standard and Technology, 1993.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    MARTIN S. WILLIAMS I V, ROBERT G S. Evaluation of seismic damage indices for concrete elements loaded in combined shear and flexure [J]. ACI Structural Journal, 94(3): 315–322.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    HINDI R A, SEXSMITH R G. A proposed damage model for RC bridge columns under cyclic loading [J]. Earthquake Spectra, 2001, 17(2): 261–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    KIM T H, LEE K M, CHUNG Y S, et al. Seismic damage assessment of reinforced concrete bridge columns [J]. Engineering Structures, 2005, 27(4): 576–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Plan and Budget Organization of Iran (PBO). Iranian comprehensive unit price schedule for building [M]. Tehran, Iran: PBO, 2016 (in Persian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiaotong University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan - Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint InstituteShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations