Frontiers of Optoelectronics

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 544–548 | Cite as

Characterizing PM2.5 in Beijing and Shanxi Province using terahertz radiation

  • Ning Li
  • Honglei Zhan
  • Kun Zhao
  • Zhenwei Zhang
  • Chenyu Li
  • Cunlin Zhang
Research Article


Particles of aerodynamic diameter⩽2.5 μm (PM2.5) caused extremely severe and persistent haze pollution is of concern in many cities. In this study, samples of PM2.5 were collected from atmosphere environment of Beijing and Shanxi Province, and analyzed using terahertz (THz) radiation. The transmission spectrum of PM2.5 in Shanxi Province had two distinct absorption peaks at 6.0 and 6.7 THz, and the curve was increasing on the whole. However, the transmission spectrum of PM2.5 in Beijing had obviously different variation tendency and the absorption peak was studied by monitoring PM2.5 masses in conjunction with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). By comparing the pollutant species and concentrations of Shanxi Province and Beijing over the time of collecting samples, the concentrations of sulfate and ammonium were similar, which contributed to emerge absorption bands in the same position. While the concentrations of organic matter (OM), nitrate, chloride and elemental carbon (EC) were different. Furthermore, dust and some other inorganic ion are unique to Shanxi province, which lead to different variation tendency of the transmission spectrum of PM2.5. These results will be of importance for environmental monitoring and for controlling PM emissions. According to this research, optical techniques, and especially spectral methods, should be considered for PM2.5 monitoring.


PM2.5 terahertz two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Huang R J, Zhang Y, Bozzetti C, Ho K F, Cao J J, Han Y, Daellenbach K R, Slowik J G, Platt S M, Canonaco F, Zotter P, Wolf R, Pieber S M, Bruns E A, Crippa M, Ciarelli G, Piazzalunga A, Schwikowski M, Abbaszade G, Schnelle-Kreis J, Zimmermann R, An Z, Szidat S, Baltensperger U, El Haddad I, Prévôt A S. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature, 2014, 514(7521): 218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2. (in Chinese), accessed on 20 December 2012Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yao L, Yang L, Yuan Q, Yan C, Dong C, Meng C, Sui X, Yang F, Lu Y, Wang W. Sources apportionment of PM2.5 in a background site in the North China Plain. Science of the Total Environment, 2016, 541: 590–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhou X, Cao Z, Ma Y, Wang L, Wu R, Wang W. Concentrations, correlations and chemical species of PM2.5/PM10 based on published data in China: potential implications for the revised particulate standard. Chemosphere, 2016, 144: 518–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferm M, Sjöberg K. Concentrations and emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 from road traffic in Sweden. Atmospheric Environment, 2015, 119: 211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han S, Youn J S, Jung Y W. Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 source profiles for resuspended road dust collected using mobile sampling methodology. Atmospheric Environment, 2011, 45(20): 3343–3351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu J, Zhang X. Terahertz radiation-enhanced-emission-of-fluorescence. Frontiers of Optoelectronics, 2014, 7(2): 156–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Su T, Yu B, Han P, Zhao G, Gong C. Characterization of spectra of lignin from midribs of tobacco at THz frequencies. Frontiers of Optoelectronics in China, 2009, 2(3): 244–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feng X, Wu S, Zhao K, Wang W, Zhan H, Jiang C, Xiao L, Chen S. Pattern transitions of oil-water two-phase flow with low water content in rectangular horizontal pipes probed by terahertz spectrum. Optics Express, 2015, 23(24): A1693–A1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ge L N, Zhan H L, Leng W X, Zhao K, Xiao L Z. Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy. Energy & Fuels, 2015, 29(3): 1622–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhan H, Wu S, Bao R, Zhao K, Xiao L, Ge L, Shi H. Water adsorption dynamics in active carbon probed by terahertz spectroscopy. RSC Advances, 2015, 5: 14389–14392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhan H, Wu S, Bao R, Ge L, Zhao K. Qualitative identification of crude oils from different oil fields using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Fuel, 2015, 143: 189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhan H, Li Q, Zhao K, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Zhang C, Xiao L. Evaluating PM2.5 at a construction site using terahertz radiation. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 2015, 5(6): 1028–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li Q, Zhao K, Zhang L, Liang C, Zhang Z, Zhang C, Han D. Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave. Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2014, 57(12): 2354–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang Y, Harsha S S, Shutler A J, Grischkowsky D R. Identification of genistein and biochanin A by THz (far-infrared) vibrational spectra. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2012, 62: 177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meng T, Du R, Hou Z, Yang J, Zhao G. THz spectra-based SVM prediction model for Yungang Grottoes samples. Journal of Archaeological Science, 2015, 55: 280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen Z, Jiang Y, Jiang L, Ma H. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2016, 153: 741–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hu M, Mu K, Zhang C, Gu H, Ding Z. Broadband THz pulse emission and transmission properties of nanostructured Pt thin films. Physica B, Condensed Matter, 2015, 474: 64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kansiz M, Domínguez-Vidal A, McNaughton D, Lendl B. Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for monitoring and determining the degree of crystallisation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2007, 388(5-6): 1207–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burnett A D, Fan W, Upadhya P C, Cunningham J E, Hargreaves M D, Munshi T, Edwards H G M, Linfield E H, Davies A G. Broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of drugs-of-abuse and the use of principal component analysis. Analyst, 2009, 134(8): 1658–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Isaksson T. Methods to extract exclusively linear relationships in generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS). Vibrational Spectroscopy, 2004, 36(2): 251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meng Z Y, Jiang X M, Yan P, Lin W L, Zhang H D, Wang Y. Characteristics and sources of PM2.5 and carbonaceous species during winter in Taiyuan, China. Atmospheric Environment, 2007, 41(32): 6901–6908CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and GasChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsCapital Normal UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations