Frontiers of Optoelectronics

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 560–564 | Cite as

All-optical bistable switching, hard-limiter and wavelength-controlled power source

  • Mehdi Shirdel
  • Mohammad Ali Mansouri-BirjandiEmail author
Research Article


In this paper, an all-optical bistable switching operation of resonant-tunneling devices with ultra-small photonic crystal cavity was demonstrated. The whole structure was based on a square lattice photonic crystal formed by rods of refractive index nr= 3.4 in an air background. The cavity was surrounded by eight nonlinear rods of refractive index nL0= 3.1 and nonlinear Kerr coefficient n2= 9 × 10–17 W/m2. Nonlinear finite difference time domain method was used to get a bistability hysteresis loop. Next, all-optical wavelength controlled power source (WCPS), hard-limiter and switching operation based on optical nonlinearity were shown. And that small cavity structure has a small length of 12 mm. Considering the numerous applications and small length, this proposed structure has various potential function in all-optical circuits. Keywords


all-optical bistability Kerr nonlinearity photonic crystal cavity switching 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wang H Z, Zhou W M, Zheng J P. A 2D rods-in-air square-lattice photonic crystal optical switch. Optik (Stuttgart), 2010, 121(21): 1988–1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mansouri-Birjandi M A, Moravvej-Farshi M K, Rostami A. Ultrafast low-threshold all-optical switch implemented by arrays of ring resonators coupled to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer arm: based on 2D photonic crystals. Applied Optics, 2008, 47(27): 5041–5050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gibbs H M. Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light, Quantum Electronics–Principles and Applications. Orlando Fl: Academic Press, 1985Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huybrechts K, Baets R, Morthier G. All-optical flip-flop operation in a standard tunable DBR laser diode. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2009, 21(24): 1873–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu L, Kumar R, Huybrechts K, Spuesens T, Roelkens G, Geluk E J, de Vries T, Regreny P, Van Thourhout D, Baets R, Morthier G. An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip. Nature Photonics, 2010, 4(3): 182–187Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yanik M F, Fan S, Soljacic M, Joannopoulos J D. All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal crosswaveguide geometry. Optics Letters, 2003, 28(24): 2506–2508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kim M K, Hwang I K, Kim S H, Chang H J, Lee Y H. All-optical bistable switching in curved microfiber-coupled photonic crystal resonators. Applied Physics Letters, 2007, 90(16): 161118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Priem G, Dumon P, Bogaerts W, Van Thourhout D, Morthier G, Baets R. Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-oninsulator ring resonator structures. Optics Express, 2005, 13(23): 9623–9628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ogusu K, Takayama K. Optical bistability in photonic crystal microrings with nonlinear dielectric materials. Optics Express, 2008, 16(10): 7525–7539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yanik M F, Fan S, Soljacic M. High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities. Applied Physics Letters, 2003, 83(14): 2739–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen M, Li C, Xu M, Wang W, Xia Y, Ma S. Optical bistable device based on one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide. Optics Communications, 2005, 255(1–3): 46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li C, Wu J, Xu W. Influence of two-photon absorption on bistable switching in a silicon photonic crystal microcavity. Optics Communications, 2010, 283(14): 2957–2960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wurtz G A, Pollard R, Zayats A V. Optical bistability in nonlinear surface-plasmon polaritonic crystals. Physical Review Letters, 2006, 97(5): 057402-1–057402-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grieco A, Slutsky B, Tan D T H, Zamek S, Nezhad MP, Fainman Y. Optical bistability in a silicon waveguide distributed Bragg reflector fabry–pérot resonator. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2012, 30(14): 2352–2355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Min C, Wang P, Chen C, Deng Y, Lu Y, Ming H, Ning T, Zhou Y, Yang G. All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials. Optics Letters, 2008, 33(8): 869–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boyd R W. Nonlinear Optics. California: Academic Press, 1992Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vahala K J. Optical microcavities. Nature, 2003, 424(6950): 839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Notomi M, Shinya A, Mitsugi S, Kira G, Kuramochi E, Tanabe T. Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities. Optics Express, 2005, 13(7): 2678–2687CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Shirdel
    • 1
  • Mohammad Ali Mansouri-Birjandi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Sistan and Baluchestan (USB)ZahedanIran

Personalised recommendations