Undesired reflection caused by impedance mismatch can lead to significant power loss and other unwanted effects. In the terahertz regime, anti-reflection method has evolved from simple quarter-wave antireflection coating to sophisticated metamaterial device and photonic structures. In this paper, we examined and compared the theories and techniques of several antireflection implementations for terahertz waves, with emphasis on gradient index photonic structures. A comprehensive study is presented on the design, fabrication and evaluation of this new approach.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Englert C R, Birk M, Maurer H. Antireflection coated, wedged, single-crystal silicon aircraft window for the far-infrared. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1999, 37(4): 1997–2003
Gatesman A J, Waldman J, Ji M, Musante C, Yangvesson S. An antireflection coating for silicon optics at terahertz frequencies. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, 2000, 10(7): 264–266
McKnight S W, Stewart K P, Drew H D, Moorjani K. Wavelengthindependent anti-interference coating for the far-infrared. Infrared Physics, 1987, 27(5): 327–333
Kröll J, Darmo J, Unterrainer K. Metallic wave-impedance matching layers for broadband terahertz optical systems. Optics Express, 2007, 15(11): 6552–6560
Thoman A, Kern A, Helm H, Walther M. Nanostructured gold films broadband terahertz antireflection coating. Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2008, 77(19): 195405
Poitras D, Dobrowolski J A. Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 2. Theory. Applied Optics, 2004, 43(6): 1286–1295
Hosako I. Multilayer optical thin films for use at terahertz frequencies: method of fabrication. Applied Optics, 2005, 44(18): 3769–3773
Chen H T, Zhou J, O’Hara J F, Chen F, Azad A K, Taylor A J. Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism. Physical Review Letters, 2010, 105(7): 073901
Brückner C, Pradarutti B, Stenzel O, Steinkopf R, Riehemann S, Notni G, Tünnermann A. Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics. Optics Express, 2007, 15(3): 779–789
Kuroo S, Shiraishi K, Sasho H, Yoda H, Muro K. Triangular surfacerelief grating for reduction of reflection from silicon surface in the 0.1-3 terahertz region. In: Proceedings of CLEO/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies. 2008, CThD7
Chen Y W, Han P Y, Zhang X C. Tunable broadband antireflection structures for silicon at terahertz frequency. Applied Physics Letters, 2009, 94(4): 041106
Dobrowolski J A, Poitras D, Ma P, Vakil H, Acree M. Toward perfect antireflection coatings: numerical investigation. Applied Optics, 2002, 41(16): 3075–3083
Chen M, Chang H C, Chang A S P, Lin S Y, Xi J Q, Schubert E F. Design of optical path for wide-angle gradient-index antireflection coatings. Applied Optics, 2007, 46(26): 6533–6538
Kadlec C, Kadlec F, Kuzel P, Blary K, Mounaix P. Materials with on-demand refractive indices in the terahertz range. Optics Letters, 2008, 33(19): 2275–2277
Saleh B E A, Teich M C. Fundamentals of Photonics, New Jersey: Wiley, 2007, 246–251
Dai J, Xie X, Zhang X C. Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases. Physical Review Letters, 2006, 97(10): 103903
Ho I C, Guo X, Zhang X C. Design and performance of reflective terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection for time-domain spectroscopy. Optics Express, 2010, 18(3): 2872–2883
Dai J, Zhang J, Zhang W, Grischkowsky D. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy characterization of the far-infrared absorption and index refraction of high-resistivity, float-zone silicon. Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical Physics, 2004, 21(7): 1379–1386
Loewenstein E V, Smith D R, Morgan R L. Optical constants of far infrared materials. 2: crystalline solids. Applied Optics, 1973, 12(2): 398–406
Brückner T, Käsebier T, Pradarutti B, Riehemann S, Notni G, Kley E B, Tünnermann A. Broadband antireflective structures applied to high resistive float zone silicon in the THz spectral range. Optics Express, 2009, 17(5): 3063–3077
Yuting W. Chen received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign in 2007, the M. S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in 2009 and 2011, respectively. During her graduate study, she was a National Science Foundation IGERT Fellow in the Center for Terahertz Research at RPI. Her research was in the area of silicon photonic structures for broadband anti-reflection of terahertz waves. She was the recipient of the Founders Award of Excellence at RPI in 2009 and holds two U.S. patents. Dr. Chen is currently with IBM at Poughkeepsie, NY.
Xi-Cheng Zhang-Parker Givens Chair of Optics, assumes Directorship of The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester (UR), NY, a foremost institution in optics and optical physics research and education, on 1/1/2012. Prior to joining UR, he pioneered worldleading research in the field of ultrafast laserbased terahertz technology and optical physics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Troy NY (1992–2012). At RPI, he is the Eric Jonsson Professor of Science; Acting Head at the Department of Physics, Applied Physics & Astronomy; Professor of Electrical, Computer & System; and Founding Director of the Center for THz Research. He is co-founder of Zomega Terahertz Corp. With a B.S. (1982) from Peking University, he earned the M.S. (1983) and Ph.D. degree (1985) in Physics from Brown University, RI.
Previous positions included Visiting Scientist at MIT (1985), Physical Tech. Division of Amoco Research Center (1987), EE Dept. at Columbia University (1987–1991); Distinguished Visiting Scientist at Jet Propulsion Lab, Caltech (2006). He holds 27 U.S. patents, and is a prolific author and speaker. He is a Fellow of AAAS, APS (lifetime), IEEE, and OSA (lifetime). Dr. Zhang served as Editor-in-Chief of Optics Letters (2014–2016).
His honors and awards include: IRMMW-THz Kenneth Button Prize (2014); OSA William F. Meggers Award (2012); IEEE Photonics Society William Streifer Scientific Achievement Award (2011); Rensselaer William H. Wiley 1866 Award (2009); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship & NRC-CIAR Distinguished Visiting Scientist, Ottawa, Canada (2004); and First Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Lecturer, RWTH, Aachen, Germany (2003). He also served two years as a Distinguished Lecturer of IEEE/LEOS. He received Rensselaer Early Career Award (1996), Research Corporation Cottrell Scholar Award (1995), NSF Early Career Award (1995), K.C. Wong Prize, K.C. Wong Foundation, Hong Kong (1995), NSF Research Initiation Award (1992). In 1993–1994, he was an AFOSR-SRPF Fellow at Hanscom Air Force Base.
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, Y.W., Zhang, XC. Anti-reflection implementations for terahertz waves. Front. Optoelectron. 7, 243–262 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-013-0377-z
- gradient index
- photonic structure