National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1–266.
Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, Levin A, Coresh J, Rossert J, et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 2005;67:2089–100.
Hallan SI, Coresh J, Astor BC, Asberg A, Powe NR, Romundstad S, et al. International comparison of the relationship of chronic kidney disease prevalence and ESRD risk. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:2275–84.
Imai E, Matsuo S. Chronic kidney disease in Asia. Lancet. 2008;371:2147–8.
Japanese Society of Nephrology. Clinical Practice Guidebook for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease 2009. Tokyo: Tokyo-Igaku Co.; 2009 (In Japanese).
Japanese Society of Nephrology. Clinical practice guidebook for diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease 2012. Tokyo: Tokyo-Igaku Co.; 2012 (in Japanese).
Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2003;108:2154–69.
Matsushita K, van der Velde M, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, de Jong PE, et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:2073–81.
Levey AS, de Jong PE, Coresh J, El Nahas M, Astor BC, Matsushita K, et al. The definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease: a KDIGO Controversies Conference report. Kidney Int. 2011;80:17–28.
Noborisaka Y, Ishizaki M, Yamada Y, Honda R, Yokoyama H, Miyao M, et al. The effects of continuing and discontinuing smoking on the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the healthy middle-aged working population in Japan. Environ Health Prev Med. 2013;18:24–32.
Imai E, Horio M, Watanabe T, Iseki K, Yamagata K, Hara S, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2009;13:621–30.
Yamada Y, Noborisaka Y, Ishizaki M, Honda R, Tsuritani I, Yamada S. Association between cigarette consumption and proteinuria in healthy Japanese men and women from an occupational population. J Occup Health. 2004;46:365–73.
Ogihara T, Kikuchi K, Matsuoka H, Fujita T, Higaki J, Horiuchi M, et al. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH 2009). Hypertens Res. 2009;32:3–107.
Kashiwagi A, Kasuga M, Araki E, Oka Y, Hanafusa T, Ito H, et al. International clinical harmonization of glycated hemoglobin in Japan: from Japan Diabetes Society to National Glychohemoglobin Standardization Program values. Diabetol Int. 2012;3:8–10.
Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. The criteria for diagnosis of obesity. JJSSO. 2011;17:1–2. (in Japanese).
Noborisaka Y, Ishizaki M, Nakata M, Yamada Y, Honda R, Yokoyama H, et al. Cigarette smoking, proteinuria, and renal function in middle-aged Japanese men from an occupational population. Environ Health Prev Med. 2012;17:147–56.
Matsuo S, Imai E, Horio M, Yasuda Y, Tomita K, Nitta K, et al. Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53:982–92.
Iseki K, Asahi K, Moriyama T, Yamagata K, Tsuruya K, Yoshida H, et al. Risk factor profiles based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and dipstick proteinuria among participants of the Specific Health Check and Guidance System in Japan 2008. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012;16:244–9.
Japan Industrial Safety & Health Association. General guidebook on industrial health. Tokyo: Japan Industrial Safety & Health Association; 2011. p. 34. (in Japanese).
Fujibayashi K, Fukuda H, Yokokawa H, Haniu T, Oka F, Ooike M, et al. Associations between healthy lifestyle behaviors and proteinuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:932–40.
Stengel B, Tarver-Carr ME, Powe NR, Eberhardt MS, Brancati FL. Lifestyle factors, obesity and the risk of chronic kidney disease. Epidemiology. 2003;14:479–87.
Yamagata K, Ishida K, Sairenchi T, Takahashi H, Ohba S, Shiigai T, et al. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: a 10-year follow-up study. Kidney Int. 2007;71:159–66.
The National Health and Nutritional Survey in Japan. The National Health and Nutritional Survey in Japan, 2008. Tokyo: Dai-ichi Shuppan Co.; 2011 (in Japanese).
Tozawa M, Iseki K, Iseki C, Oshiro S, Ikemiya Y, Takishita S. Triglyceride, but not total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, predict development of proteinuria. Kidney Int. 2002;62:1743–9.
Muntner P, Coresh J, Smith JC, Eckfeldt J, Klag MJ. Plasma lipids and risk of developing renal dysfunction: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Kidney Int. 2000;58:293–301.
Schaeffner ES, Kurth T, Curhan GC, Glynn RJ, Rexrode KM, Baigent C, et al. Cholesterol and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:2084–91.
Shoji T, Abe T, Matsuo H, Egusa G, Yamasaki Y, Kashihara N, et al. Chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:299–315.
Ronksley PE, Brien SE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d671.
Fored CM, Ejerblad E, Fryzek JP, Lambe M, Lindblad P, Nyren O, et al. Socio-economic status and chronic renal failure: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:82–8.
Shoham DA, Vupputuri S, Kaufman JS, Kshirsagar AV, Diez Roux AV, Coresh J, et al. Kidney disease and the cumulative burden of life course socioeconomic conditions: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:1311–20.
Hoy WE. Renal disease in Australian aboriginals. Med J Aust. 1996;165:126–7.
Huda MN, Alam KS, Alam KS, Harun UrR. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its association with risk factors in disadvantageous population. Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:267329.
Perkovic V, Cass A, Patel AA, Suriyawongpaisal P, Barzi F, Chadban S, et al. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Thailand. Kidney Int. 2008;73:473–9.
Japanese Society of Nephrology. The guidebook for the measurements of renal function (GFR) and protein in urine. Tokyo: Tokyo Igaku Co.; 2009 (in Japanese).
Iseki K, Oshiro S, Tozawa M, Iseki C, Ikemiya Y, Takishita S. Significance of hyperuricemia on the early detection of renal failure in a cohort of screened subjects. Hypertens Res. 2001;24:691–7.
Ohno I, Hosoya T, Gomi H, Ichida K, Okabe H, Hikita M. Serum uric acid and renal prognosis in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephron. 2001;87:333–9.
Weiner DE, Tighiouart H, Elsayed EF, Griffith JL, Salem DN, Levey AS. Uric acid and incident kidney disease in the community. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1204–11.
Chonchol M, Shlipak MG, Katz R, Sarnak MJ, Newman AB, Siscovick DS, et al. Relationship of uric acid with progression of kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:239–47.
Franchini I, Cavatorta A, Falzoi M, Lucertini S, Mutti A. Early indicators of renal damage in workers exposed to organic solvents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1983;52:1–9.
Nuyts GD, Van Vlem E, Thys J, De Leersnijder D, D’Haese PC, Elseviers MM, et al. New occupational risk factors for chronic renal failure. Lancet. 1995;346:7–11.
Ekong EB, Jaar BG, Weaver VM. Lead-related nephrotoxicity: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Kidney Int. 2006;70:2074–84.
Kim Y, Lee BK. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: analysis of 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Environ Res. 2012;118:124–9.
Akesson A, Lundh T, Vahter M, Bjellerup P, Lidfeldt J, Nerbrand C, et al. Tubular and glomerular kidney effects in Swedish women with low environmental cadmium exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1627–31.
Edwards JR, Prozialeck WC. Cadmium, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:289–93.
Lewis GP, Coughlin LL, Jusko WJ, Hartz S. Contribution of cigarette smoking to cadmium accumulation in man. Lancet. 1972;1:291–2.
Mortensen ME, Wong LY, Osterloh JD. Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2011;214:305–10.