Advertisement

The SoundBike: musical sonification strategies to enhance cyclists’ spontaneous synchronization to external music

  • Pieter-Jan Maes
  • Valerio Lorenzoni
  • Joren Six
Original Paper

Abstract

The spontaneous tendency of people to synchronize their movements to music is a powerful mechanism useful for the development of strategies for tempo adaptation of simple repetitive movements. In the current article, we contribute to such strategies—applied to cycling—by introducing a new strategy based on the sonification of cyclists’ motor rhythm. For that purpose, we developed the SoundBike, a stationary bike equipped with sensors that allows interactive sonification of cyclists’ motor rhythm using two distinct but compatible sonification methods. One is based on the principle of step sequencers, which are frequently used for electronic music production. The other is based on the Kuramoto model, allowing automatic and continuous phase alignment of beat-annotated music pieces to cyclists’ motor rhythm, i.e., pedal cadence. Apart from an in-depth presentation of the technical aspects of the SoundBike, we present an experimental study in which we investigated whether the SoundBike could enhance spontaneous synchronization of cyclists to external music. The results of this experiment suggest that sonification of cyclists’ motor rhythm may increase their tendency to synchronize to external music, and helps to keep a more stable pedal cadence, compared to the condition of having external music only (without sonification). Although the results are preliminary and should be followed-up by additional experiments to become more conclusive, SoundBike seems anyhow a promising interactive sonification device to assist motor learning and adaptation in the field of sports and motor rehabilitation.

Keywords

Sonification Musical biofeedback Sensorimotor synchronization Movement tempo adaptation Reinforcement learning Reward 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We want to thank Ivan Schepers for the hardware development of the SoundBike. This research was conducted in the framework of the EmcoMetecca II project, granted by Ghent University (Methusalem-BOF council) to Prof. Dr. Marc Leman.

References

  1. 1.
    Maes P-J, Buhmann J, Leman M (2016) 3Mo: a model for music-based biofeedback. Front Neurosci 10:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubus G, Bresin R (2013) A systematic review of mapping strategies for the sonification of physical quantities. PLoS One 8(12):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sigrist R, Rauter G, Riener R, Wolf P (2013) Augmented visual, auditory, haptic, and multimodal feedback in motor learning: a review. Psychon Bull Rev 20:21–53.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-012-0333-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bevilacqua F, Boyer EO, Françoise J, Houix O, Susini P, Roby-Brami A, Hanneton S (2016) Sensori-motor learning with movement sonification: perspectives from recent interdisciplinary studies. Front Neurosci 10:385.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00385 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leake DB, Ram A (1995) Learning, goals, and learning goals: a perspective on goal-driven learning. Artif Intell Rev 9:387–422.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00849065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huron D (2006) Sweet anticipation: music and the psychology of expectation. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Phillips-Silver J, Aktipis CA, Bryant GA (2010) The ecology of entrainment: foundations of coordinated rhythmic movement. Music Percept 28:3–14.  https://doi.org/10.1525/mp.2010.28.1.3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leman M (2016) The expressive moment: how interaction (with music) shapes human empowerment. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strogatz SH (2003) Sync: the emerging science of spontaneous order. Hyperion Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Repp BH, Su YH (2013) Sensorimotor synchronization: a review of recent research (2006–2012). Psychon Bull Rev 20:403–452.  https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-012-0371-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clayton M (2012) What is entrainment? Definition and applications in musical research. Empir Musicol Rev 7:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keller PE, Novembre G, Hove MJ (2014) Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 369:1–12Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maes P-J, Giacofci M, Leman M (2015) Auditory and motor contributions to the timing of melodies under cognitive load. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 41:1336–1352.  https://doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van Dyck E, Moens B, Buhmann J, Demey M, Coorevits E, Dalla Bella S, Leman M (2015) Spontaneous entrainment of running cadence to music tempo. Sport Med Open.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-015-0030-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buhmann J, Moens B, Lorenzoni V, Leman M (2017) Shifting the musical beat to influence running cadence. In: Van Dyck E (ed) Proceedings of the 25th anniversary conference of the European society for the cognitive sciences of music (ESCOM2017), Ghent, pp 27–31Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moens B, Leman M (2015) Alignment strategies for the entrainment of music and movement rhythms. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1337:86–93.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moens B, Muller C, Van Noorden L, Franěk M, Celie B, Boone J, Bourgois J, Leman M (2014) Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music. PLoS One 9:e114234.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fritz TH, Hardikar S, Demoucron M, Niessen M, Demey M, Giot O, Li Y, Haynes J-D, Villringer A, Leman M (2013) Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:17784–17789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maculewicz J, Serafin S, Kofoed LB (2013) Does a rhythmic auditory feedback help exercising with an auditory instruction? In: International conference on multisensory motor behavior: impact of sound, Leinizhaus HanoverGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruun Pedersen JR, Grani F, Serafin S (2017) Investigating the role of auditory feedback in a multimodal biking experience. In: 13th international symposium on CMMR, Matosinhos, pp 189–199Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schaffert N, Godbout A, Schlueter S, Mattes K (2017) Towards an application of interactive sonification for the forces applied on the pedals during cycling on the Wattbike ergometer. Displays 50:41–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2017.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sigrist R, Fox S, Riener R, Wolf P (2016) Benefits of crank moment sonification in cycling. Procedia Eng 147:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuramoto Y (1975) Self-entrainment of a population of coupled non-linear oscillators. In: Araki H (ed) International symposium on mathematical problems in theoretical physics, pp 420–422Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Driedger J, Müller M (2016) A review of time-scale modification of music signals. Appl Sci 6:57.  https://doi.org/10.3390/app6020057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buhmann J, Desmet F, Moens B, Van Dyck E, Leman M (2016) Spontaneous velocity effect of musical expression on self-paced walking. PLoS One 11:e0154414.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nessler JA, Kephart G, Cowell J, De Leone CJ (2011) Varying treadmill speed and inclination affects spontaneous synchronization when two individuals walk side by side. J Appl Biomech 27:322–329.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.27.4.322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lumsden J, Miles LK, Richardson MJ, Smith CA, Macrae CN (2012) Who syncs? Social motives and interpersonal coordination. J Exp Soc Psychol 48:746–751.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bentley DJ, Newell J, Bishop D (2007) Incremental exercise test design and analysis. Sport Med 37:575–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maes P-J, Lorenzoni V, Moens B, Six J, Bressan F, Schepers I, Leman M (2018) Embodied, participatory sense-making in digitally-augmented music practices: theoretical principles and the artistic case “SoundBikes”. Crit Arts 1:1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2018.1447594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IPEM, Department of Art, Music and Theatre SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations