Nutritional and metabolic stressors on ovine oocyte development and granulosa cell functions in vitro
The present study was undertaken to study the effect of ammonia, urea, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-OHB) on oocyte development and granulosa cell (GC) growth parameter of ovine (Ovis aries). Ovine oocytes were matured in vitro in the presence of different concentration of ammonia, urea, NEFA, and β-OHB for 24 h, in vitro inseminated and evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst yield. Same concentrations of ammonia, urea, NEFA, and β-OHB were examined on growth parameters and hormone secretion activity of granulosa cells in vitro. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic genes (steroidogenic cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1, CYP19A1)), cell proliferation-related genes (GDF9, FSHr), and apoptosis-related genes (BCL-2 and BAX). The maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst production rates were significantly lowered in media containing either 200 μM ammonia or 5 mM urea or high combo NEFA or 1 μM β-OHB. Exposure of granulosa cell to 400 μM ammonia or 1 μM β-OHB or very high combo or 6 mM urea significantly decreased all the parameters examined compared to lower levels of all nutritional and metabolic stressors. Elevated concentration of metabolic stressors induced GC apoptosis through the BAX/BCL-2 pathway and reduced the steroidogenic gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and cell proliferation gene mRNA expression. These results suggested that the decreased function of GCs may cause ovarian dysfunction and offered an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for the low fertility in metabolic stressed condition.
KeywordsMetabolic stressors Oocyte Granulosa cells Embryo Hormone
We are grateful to the Director, NIANP, Bangalore, for providing the necessary facility to carry out the research work. We also like to thank to Mr. Gyan Prakash for his technical assistance. Financial help from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (Grant number BT/PR7131/AAQ/1/526/2012), is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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