CD1A-positive cells and HSP60 (HSPD1) levels in keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma
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CD1a is involved in presentation to the immune system of lipid antigen derived from tumor cells with subsequent T cell activation. Hsp60 is a molecular chaperone implicated in carcinogenesis by, for instance, modulating the immune reaction against the tumor. We have previously postulated a synergism between CD1a and Hsp60 as a key factor in the activation of an effective antitumor immune response in squamous epithelia. Keratoacantomas (KAs) are benign tumors that however can transform into squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but the reasons for this malignization are unknown. In a previous study, we found that CD1a-positive cells are significantly more numerous in KA than in SCC. In this study, we analyzed a series of KAs and SCCs by immunohistochemistry for CD1a and Hsp60. Our results show that the levels of both are significantly lower in KA than in SCC and support the hypothesis that KA may evolve towards SCC if there is a failure of the local modulation of the antitumor immune response. The data also show that immunohistochemistry for CD1a and Hsp60 can be of help in differential diagnosis between KAs and well-differentiated forms of SCC.
KeywordsKeratoacantoma Squamous cell carcinoma Hsp60 CD1a Immunohistochemistry Differential diagnosis Prognostic evaluation Treatment
This work was done under the umbrella of the agreement between the Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (IEMEST; Italy) and the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET; USA) signed in March 2012 (this is IMET contribution number 15-167).
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was partially supported by the Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology (FC, FR and AJLM) and the University of Palermo (FC and DC). Part of this work was carried out using instruments provided by the Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology and funded with the Italian National Operational Programme for Research and Competitiveness 2007–2013 grant (Project code: PONa3_00210, European Regional Development Fund).
Conflict of interest
The authors do not have any conflict of interest to disclose.
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