Characterization of Resilient Adolescents in the Context of Parental Unemployment

  • Concepción Moreno-MaldonadoEmail author
  • Antonia Jiménez-Iglesias
  • Francisco Rivera
  • Carmen Moreno


This research analyzes a group of Spanish adolescents at high risk of adversity –conceptualized as living in households with no employed parent– in one of the countries where unemployment rates have risen significantly due to the recent economic recession. The objective was to identify sociodemographic and contextual factors that promote resilience in this context. Using the Extreme Group Approach and the theoretical framework of resilience, two groups of adolescents living in households with no employed parent were selected from the HBSC-2014 edition in Spain depending on their adaptive response to the risk, measured by a global health score. Therefore, from a total sample of 1336 adolescents at high risk (living in households with no employed parent), 290 resilient adolescents (those who presented the highest scores in their global health score) and 618 maladaptive adolescents (those presenting lower scores in their global health score) were selected, resulting in a final sample composed of 908 adolescents aged 11–18 years old (M = 15.2; DT = 2.18), with a balanced representation of boys and girls. Results showed that support from, and satisfaction with, family and friend relationships, as well as support from classmates and teachers, and satisfaction with the school environment, are protective factors that can foster resilience when facing adversity provoked by parental unemployment and its negative consequences for adolescent health. Intervention programs aimed at reducing the negative impact of parental unemployment on adolescent health should consider these contextual factors, as well as individual factors such as age or sex.


Parental unemployment Adolescence Resilience Health Individual factors Contextual factors 



We thank the participating adolescents and schools, the research assistants from the Spanish HBSC team who took part in this study and Ian Scionti for providing language help.

Financial Support

The HBSC study in Spain was supported by the Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad. In addition, this work was supported by Consejería de Economía, Innovación, Ciencia y Empleo de la Junta de Andalucía throught a grant received for Concepción Moreno-Maldonado in the framework of the program Incentivos a Proyectos de Investigación de Excelencia (Ref. SEJ 08007). Antonia Jiménez-Iglesias’s work was supported by the V Plan Propio de Investigación de la Universidad de Sevilla 2014, under the action “II.5B Contrato de acceso al Sistema Español de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación para el Desarrollo del Programa Propio de I+D+i de la Universidad de Sevilla”.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The Spanish questionnaire was positively evaluated by the University of Seville Ethics Committee, certifying that the questionnaire anddata collection process complied with fundamental ethics requirements in Spain and the EU for research on humans.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la EducaciónUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Psicología ExperimentalUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain

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