Developing Deprivation Index for Children Taking into Account of Adaptive Preferences
- 40 Downloads
The objective of this paper is 1) to develop child deprivation index using data collected from children themselves, and 2) to access if deprivation indexes which take into account of adaptive preference are better suited in measuring child deprivation than traditional deprivation indexes. Child deprivation index using data collected from children themselves has some advantages because child utility and his/her perception of it might be different from the perception by the parent. The paper also investigates “adaptive preference” of children. Possibility of adaptive preference has been pointed out in numerous literature early on, but whether children also exhibit “adaptive preference” behavior is still up to debate. This paper adds an evidence of adaptive preference among poor children and suggest modifications to the traditional material deprivation index, using child answered survey data from children living in metropolitan Tokyo. From the analysis, there are some evidences that “adaptive preference” behavior is present among 13 year-old children. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the “adaptive preference” is not seen in all items, and not among younger children. Such result suggests that while selecting items to be included in the deprivation index, it may be wise to treat items with high degree of “adaptive preference” differently from the items without “adaptive preference”. However, the analysis shows such modified indexes do show higher consistency, but do not necessary predict child outcomes associated with child poverty better than the traditional one.
KeywordsChild deprivation Adaptive preference Poverty Japan
This analysis is conducted partly with the research project contracted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to the Center of Child and Adolescent Poverty, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Also, the research is partly funded by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP 17H02606.
- Abe, A. (2012) “Estimation of Minimum Income Standard using MIS Methodology (Single-mother families , Two-parent families),” Report FY 2011 Health Labour Sciences Research Grant (Research on Policy Planning and Evaluation) Research on Measuring Poverty and Inequality, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Adachi City (2016). Heisei 27 Nendo Report of the Survey on Health and Life of Children (Heisei 27 Nendo Houkokusho Kodomo no Kenko Seikatsu JIttai Chousa) Adachi City. https://www.city.adachi.tokyo.jp/hisho/ku/kucho/documents/h27houkoku.pdf
- Adamson, P. (2013). Child Well-being in Rich Countries: A comparative overview, Innocenti Report Card no. 11. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. (2017). On the review of child poverty indicators (Kodomo no Hinkon ni kansuru shihyou no minaoshi Ni Atatte no Houkousei ni tsuite), published 3/31/2017 (last Access 5/26/2017) http://www8.cao.go.jp/kodomonohinkon/chousa/h28_shihyou/pdf/shihyou_minaoshi.pdf.
- Chzhen, Y., Neubourg, C., Plavgo, I., & de Milliano, M. (2016). Child poverty in the European Union : The multiple overlapping deprivation analysis approach (EU-MODA). Child Indicators Research, 9, 335–356.Google Scholar
- Eurostat. (2018). Europe 2020 indicators - poverty and social exclusion. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Europe_2020_indicators_-_poverty_and_social_exclusion. Accessed 13 April 2018.
- Gordon, D. (2006). The concept and measurement of poverty. In Pantazis, C., Gordon, D., & Levitas, R. (2006), Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: The millennium survey (pp.29–69). Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Gordon, D.,Levitas, R., Pantazis, C., & et al. (2000). Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain, Rowntree Foundation. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.336.594&rep=rep1&type=pdf
- Guio, A.-C., Gordon, D., & Marlier, E. (2012). Measuring material deprivation in the EU: Indicators for the whole population and child-specific indicators (Eurostat methodologies and working papers). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
- Iwata, M., Abe, A., Yamada, A., Iwanaga, R., Uzuki, Y. (2011) “Estimation of Minimum Income Standard using MIS Methodology (Single young persons & Children),” Report FY 2010 Health Labour Sciences Research Grant (Research on Policy Planning and Evaluation) Research on Measuring Poverty and Inequality, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.Google Scholar
- Loughborough University Centre for Research in Social Policy (2018) Minimum Income Standards, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/crsp/mis/ last access 2018/01/19.
- Mack, J., & Lansley, S. (1985). Poor Britain. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
- Nolan, B., & Whelan, C. T. (1996). Resources deprivation and poverty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Nolan, B., & Whelan, C.T. (2012). Using Nonmonetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze European Poverty and Social Exclusion. In Besharov, D.J., & Couch, K.A. (Eds.), Counting the Poor: New Thinking About European Poverty Measures and Lessons for the United States (pp.343–362). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Ochanomizu Joshi Daigaku (2014) Heisei 25 Nendo Zenkoku Gakuryoku Gakushuu Jokyo Chousa no Kekka wo Katsuyou Shita Gakuryoku ni Eikyo wo ataeru Youinbunseki ni kansuru Chousa Kenkyu (FY 2014 Report of research of factors that influence academic performance using National Academic Performance and study survey), Ochanomizu Joshi university.. Google Scholar
- Pantazis, C., Gordon, D., & Levitas, R. (Eds.). (2006). Poverty and social exclusion in Britain:The millennium survey. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
- Tokyo Metropolitan Government (2017) .TheReport of Tokyo Prefecture Child Living Conditions Survey (Tokyo-to Kodomo no Seikatu Jittai Chousa no Kekka). Tokyo Metropolitan Government http://www.fukushihoken.metro.tokyo.jp/joho/soshiki/syoushi/syoushi/oshirase/kodomoseikatsujittaityousakekka.html Accessed 17 September 2017.