A Capability Approach to Child Growth
- 126 Downloads
For decades, child growth monitoring has been performed by measuring anthropometric indicators and comparing them against universal standards. Since the 1970s various efforts have been made to expand the focus from anthropometric indicators and include broader contextual and structural factors that influence children’s growth. However, those efforts have so far not led to changes in the dimensions that are taken into account in child growth monitoring. In this paper we introduce the Capability Approach asan evaluative framework for growth monitoring of children under five years old. Applying the CA helps focusing on what children are able to achieve by analyzing their available resources (endowments), as well as the mechanisms that could enhance or restrict their access to those resources (conversion factors). In addition, children’s growth could be assessed alongside the caregivers’ capabilities that children rely on to achieve their full growth potential. We present a child growth evaluation framework as well as a matrix, which has different categories of dimensions that interact with each other and ultimately shape children’s growth. The framework is a flexible tool, and is thus broad enough to accommodate contextual differences.
KeywordsChild growth Growth monitoring charts Capability approach Multidimensional measurement
This work is financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) in relation to the research programme “Normative indicators of child growth and nutrition – once size fits all”, the grant (NWO/WOTRO W01.70.300.002) was awarded to Hinke Haisma in 2012.
- Addabbo, T., & Di Tommaso, M. L. (2009). Children's capabilities and family characteristics in Italy. IARIW Conference in Slovenia.Google Scholar
- Anand, P., & Roope, L. (2013). Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Anghelescu, C., Boca, C., Herseni, I., Popescu, C., Stativa, E., Ulrich, C., & Novak, C. (2010). Early childhood and development standards: For children from birth to seven years old. UNICEF. Available here: http://unicef.ro/wp-content/uploads/Studiu_ELDS.pdf.
- Barnett, W. S. (1995). Long-term effects of early childhood programs on cognitive and school outcomes. The Future of Children, 25–50.Google Scholar
- Bell, R., Donkin, A., & Marmot, M. (2013). Tackling structural and social issues to reduce inequalities in children's outcomes in low to middle-income countries.Google Scholar
- Biggeri, M., & Karkara, R. (2014). Transforming Children's rights into real freedom: A dialogue between Children’s rights and the capability approach from a life cycle perspective. In D. Stoecklin & J.-M. Bonvin (Eds.), Children’s Rights and the Capability Approach: Challenges and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Biggeri, M., Ballet, J., & Comim, F. (Eds.). (2011). Children and the Capability Approach. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 993–1028). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A (2007). The bioecological model of human development. Handbook of child psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0114.
- Clark, Z., & Eisenhuth, F. (2010). The capability approach and research on children. Children and the Good Life: New Challenges for the Research on Children, 69–73.Google Scholar
- de Onis, M., W Onyango, A., Borghi, E., Garza, C., & Yang, H. (2006). Comparison of the world health organization (WHO) child groth statistics/WHO international growth reference: Implications for child health programmes. Public Health Nutrition, 9(7), 942.Google Scholar
- Di Tommaso, M. L. (2006). Measuring the well being of children using a capability approach - an application to indian data. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Dixon, R., & Nussbaum, M. (2012). Children's rights and a capability approach: The question of special priority. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Engle, P. L., Black, M. M., Behrman, J. R., De Mello, M. C., Gertler, P. J., Kapiriri, L., & International Child Development Steering Group. (2007). Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world. The Lancet, 369(9557), 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Foster, J., & Handy, C. (2008). External capabilities(No. ophiwp008). Queen Elizabeth House: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Haisma, H., Yousefzadeh, S., & Boele Van Hensbroek, P. (2017). Towards a capability approach to child growth: a theoretical framework. Maternal & Child Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12534.
- Irwin, L. G., Siddiqi, A., & Hertzman, C. (2007). Early child development: A powerful equalizer. Jolly, R. (1991). Adjustment with a human face: A UNICEF record and perspective on the 1980s. World Development, 19(12), 1807–1821.Google Scholar
- Jonsson, U. (2003). Human rights approach to development programming United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
- McDonald, C. M., Manji, K. P., Kupka, R., Bellinger, D. C., Spiegelman, D., Kisenge, R., … Duggan, C. P. (2013). Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(2), 204–214. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.168682.
- Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76(4), 763–782.Google Scholar
- Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., & Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child-care quality to children's cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72(5), 1534–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Phillips, D. A., & Shonkoff, J. P. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Robeyns, I. (2007). Will a basic income do justice to women? In R. FÜCKS (Ed.), Die zukunft sozialer sicherheit [The future of social security] (Heinrich Böll Foundation Trans.). (pp. 102).Google Scholar
- Robeyns, I. (2011). Sen's capability approach and gender inequality: Selecting relevant capabilities. Feminist Economics, 9(2–3), 61–92.Google Scholar
- Sassi, M. (2013, June). Child nutritional status in the Malawian District of Salima: a capability approach. In 2013 Second Congress, June 6–7, 2013, Parma, Italy (No. 149892). Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (1992a). Inequaliy re-examined’, Harvard University press Sen, A. (2007). Children and human rights. Indian Journal of Human Development, 1(2).Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (1992b). Inequaliy re-examined. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (2003). Development as capability expansion. In S. Fukuda-Parr et al (Eds.), Readings in Human Development. New Delhi and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sen, A. (2006). Identity and violence: The illusion of destiny. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
- Sen, A. K. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sen, A. K. (2005). Human Rights and Capabilities. Journal of Human Development, 6(2), 151–166.Google Scholar
- Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). Rethinking nature and nurture.Google Scholar
- Smith, C. L., & Haddad, L. (1999). Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: A cross-country analysis. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Smith, C. L., Ramakrishnan, U., Ndiaye, A., Haddad, L., & Martorell, R. (2003). The importance of women's status for child nutrition in developing countries. Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute - Department of International Health, Emory University.Google Scholar
- Swaminathan, M. (1990). The first three years: A sourcebook on early childhood care and education. (No. ED-90/WC-28). Paris: UNESCO-UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (2014). Holistic early childhood development index (HECDI) framework - A technical guide. Available here: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002291/229188e.pdf.
- UNICEF. (1990). Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing countries. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2008). Early childhood development - the key to a full and productive life. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2013). Early childhood development in emergencies. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/earlychildhood/index_40745.html.
- WHO. (2007). WHO child growth standards head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age methods and development. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2008). Integrated health services - what and why? Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
- Young, M. E. (1995). Investing in young children. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 275. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Young, M. E. (Ed.). (2002). From early child development to human development: Investing in our children's future. Proceedings of a World Bank Conference on Investing in Our Children’s Future Washington, D.C., April 10–11, 2000, Washington, World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
- Yousefzadeh, S., & Gassmann, F. (2016). Local needs and global indicators: A contextual approach to multidimensional child poverty - case study: Iran 1984-2009. Ethical Perspective (Special Issue Justice and Disadvantages during Childhood), 23(1), 165–182.Google Scholar