Multidimensional Poverty Among Adolescents in 38 Countries: Evidence from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2013/14 Study
- 586 Downloads
This study applied UNICEF’s Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) framework to adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15) in 37 European countries and Canada using data from the 2013/14 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. It is one of the first applications of MODA based entirely on data collected from adolescents themselves rather than from household reference persons on their behalf. Unlike most other multidimensional child poverty studies, the present analysis focuses on non-material, relational aspects of child poverty. Substantial cross-country variation was found in the prevalence of adolescent deprivations in nutrition, perceived health, school environment, protection from peer violence, family environment and information access. These single dimensions of poverty did not closely relate to national wealth and income inequality. However, when we looked at deprivation in three or more dimensions (i.e., multidimensional poverty), we found association with income inequality. In most countries, girls were at a higher risk of multidimensional poverty than boys. In addition, adolescents who lived with both parents in the household or reported higher family wealth were consistently less poor than other adolescents, in both single and multiple dimensions. The results of this study show the interconnectedness of social (family, school support) and psychological (health and violence) dimensions of poverty for adolescents in higher income countries. Children poor in the domains of family and school environment are also likely to be poor in terms of perceived health and protection from peer violence.
KeywordsMultidimensional poverty Adolescent well-being Health behaviour in school-aged children study Sustainable development goals
The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is a World Health Organization collaborative study and is supported by each member country of the HBSC network (www.hbsc.org). The HBSC study is coordinated internationally by Dr. Joanna Inchley, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, with international data coordination performed by Dr. Oddrun Samdal, University of Bergen, Norway.
- Alemán-Díaz, A. Y., Toczydlowska, E., Mazur, J., Frasquilho, D., Melkumova, M., & Holmqvist, G. (2016). Why income inequalities matter for young people’s health: A look at the evidence. In Innocenti working paper 2016–06. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- Bobakova, D., Hamrik, Z., Badura, P., Sigmundova, D., Nalecz, H., & Kalman, M. (2015). Test-retest reliability of selected physical activity and sedentary behaviour HBSC items in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. International Journal of Public Health, 60(1), 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0628-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Boniel-Nissim, M., Tabak, I., Mazur, J., Borraccino, A., Brooks, F., Gommans, R., van der Sluijs, W., Zsiros, E., Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., & Finne, E. (2015). Supporting communication withi parents moderates effects of electronic media use on life satisfaction during adolescence. International Journal of Public Health, 60(1), 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0628-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brener, N., Kann, L., Shanklin, S., Kinchen, S., Eaton, D., Hawkins, J., et al. (2013). Methodology of the youth risk behavior surveillance system. MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports/Centers for Disease Control, 62(RR-1), 1–20.Google Scholar
- Brindova, D., Veselska, Z., Klein, D., Hamrik, Z., Sigmundova, D., van Dijk, J., et al. (2015). Is the association between screen-based behaviour and health complaints among adolescents moderated by physical activity? International Journal of Public Health, 60(2), 139–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0627-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cavallo, F., Zambon, A., Raven-Sieberer, U., Torsheim, T., Lemma, P., & HBSC Positive Health Focus Group. (2006). Girls growing through adolescence have a higher risk of poor health. Quality of Life Research: an International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation, 15(10), 1577–1585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-006-0037-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cavallo, F., Dalmasso, P., Ottova -Jordan, V., Brooks, F., Mazur, J., Välimaa, R., et al. (2015). Trends in self-rated health in European and North-American adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 32 countries. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(suppl 2), 13–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chzhen, Y., & Ferrone, L. (2017). Multidimensional child deprivation and poverty measurement: Case study of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Social Indicators Research, 131(3), 999–1014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-016-1291-8.
- Chzhen, Y., Moor, I., Pickett, W., Toczydlowska, E., & Stevens, G. (2016b). Family affluence and inequality in adolescent health and life satisfaction: Evidence from the HBSC study 2002-2014. In Innocenti working paper 2016–10. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Parent-adolescent relationships and influences. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 331–362). N.J: Willey.Google Scholar
- Currie, C., Molcho, M., Boyce, W., Holstein, B., Torsheim, T., & Richter, M. (2008). Researching health inequalities in adolescents: The development of the health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) family affluence scale. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1429–1436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Currie, C., Inchley, J., Molcho, M., Lenzi, M., Veselska, Z., & Wild, F. e. (2014). Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study protocol: Background, methodology and mandatory items for the 2013/14 survey. Edinburgh: Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit.Google Scholar
- de Milliano, M., & Handa, S. (2014). Child poverty and deprivation in Mali: The first national estimates. In Innocenti working paper 2014–20. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- de Milliano, M., & Plavgo, I. (2014). Analysing child poverty and deprivation in sub-Saharan Africa: CC-MODA – Cross country multiple overlapping deprivation analysis. In Innocenti working paper 2014–19. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- de Neubourg, C., Chai, J., de Milliano, M., Plavgo, I., & Wei, Z. (2012). Step-by-step guidelines to the multiple overlapping deprivation analysis (MODA). In Working Paper 2012–10. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- de Neubourg, C., de Milliano, M., & Plavgo, I. (2014). Lost (in) dimensions: Consolidating progress in multidimensional poverty research. In Innocenti working paper 2014–04. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar
- Due, P., Holstein, B., Lynch, J., Diderichsen, F., Gabhain, S., Scheidt, P., et al. (2005). Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: International comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries. The European Journal of Public Health, 15(2), 128–132. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doku, D., Koivusilta, L. & Rimpelä, A. (2010). Indicators for measuring material affluence of adolescents in health inequality research in developing countries. Child Indicators Research, 3(2), 243–260.Google Scholar
- Elgar, F., Pförtner, T.-K., Moor, I., De Clercq, B., Stevens, G. W., & Currie, C. (2015b). Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002–2010: A time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the health behaviour in school-aged children study. The Lancet, 385(9982), 2088–2095. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61460-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gordon, D., Nandy, S., Pantazis, C., Pemberton, S., & Townsend, P. (2003). The distribution of child poverty in the developing world. Bristol: Centre for International Poverty Research.Google Scholar
- Guio, A.-C., Gordon, D., & Marlier, E. (2012). Measuring material deprivation in the EU: Indicators for the whole population and child-specific indicators. In Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
- Harel-Fisch, Y., Walsh, S. D., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Amitai, G., Pickett, W., Molcho, M., et al. (2011). Negative school perceptions and involvement in school bullying: A universal relationship across 40 countries. Journal of Adolescence, 34(4), 639–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.09.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hemphill, S., Kotevski, A., & Heerde, J. (2015). Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians. International Journal of Public Health, 60(2), 227–237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0644-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inchley, J., Currie, D., Young, T., Samdal, O., Torsheim, T., Augustson, L., et al. (2016). Growing up unequal: Gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s health and well-being. Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2013/2014 survey. Health policy for children and adolescents. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
- International Monetary Fund (2016). World Economic Outlook Database. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/index.aspx. Accessed 11 April 2016.
- Kamerman, S. B., Neuman, M., Waldfogel, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Social policies, family types and child outcomes in selected OECD countries. In OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 6. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Lau, M., & Bradshaw, J. (2016). Material well-being, social relationships and children's overall life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Child Indicators Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-016-9426-7.
- Liu, Y., Wang, M., Tynjälä, J., Lv, Y., Villberg, J., Zhang, Z., et al. (2010). Test-retest reliability of selected items of health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) survey questionnaire in Beijing, China. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-10-73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moreno, C., Muñoz-Tinoco, V., Pérez, P., & Sánchez-Queija, I. (2006). Los adolescentes españoles y sus familias: calidad en la comunicación con el padre y con la madre y conductas de riesgo relacionadas con el consumo de sustancias adictivas. Cultura y Educación, 18(3-4), 345–362. https://doi.org/10.1174/113564006779172975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moreno, C., Sánchez-Queija, I., Muñoz-Tinoco, V., Matos, M. G., Dallago, L., Bogt, T. T., et al. (2009). Cross-national associations between parent and peer communication and psychological complaints. International Journal of Public Health, 54(2), 235–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-5415-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nuutinen, T., Roos, E., Ray, C., Villberg, J., Välimaa, R., Rasmussen, M., et al. (2014). Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms: A cross-sectional study of 15-year olds in three countries. International Journal of Public Health, 59(4), 619–628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0561-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1996). The revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Bergen: University of Bergen.Google Scholar
- Pedersen, T. P., Meilstrup, C., Holstein, B. E., & Rasmussen, M. (2012). Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: Cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rampersaud, G., Pereira, M., Girard, B., Adams, J., & Metzl, J. (2005). Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105(5), 743–760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Richter, M., Moor, I., & van Lenthe, F. J. (2012). Explaining socioeconomic differences in adolescent self-rated health: The contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(8), 691–697. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2010.125500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Solt, F. (2014). The standardized world income inequality database (SWIID) version 5.0., Harvard Dataverse, V14. https://dataverse.harvard.Edu/dataset.Xhtml?persistentId=hdl:1902.1/11992. Accesed 05 July 2016.
- Sourander, A., Brunstein, K. A., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., et al. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 720–728. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, 1 (Vol. 1, pp. 103–133). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
- Story, M., & Stang, J. (2005). Nutrition needs of adolescents. In J. Stang & M. Story (Eds.), Guidelines for adolescent nutrition services (pp. 21–34). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Tremblay, M. S., LeBlanc, A. G., Kho, M. E., Saunders, T. J., Larouche, R., Colley, R. C., et al. (2011). Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 98. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNICEF. (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries. In Innocenti report card 7. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2016). Fairness for children: A league table of inequality in child well-being in rich countries. In Innocenti report card 13. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
- United Nations (1989). Convention on the rights of the child (CRC). http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf Accessed 05 July 2016.
- Vereecken, C., Pedersen, T. P., Ojala, K., Krølner, R., Dzielska, A., Ahluwalia, N., et al. (2015). Fruit and vegetable consumption trends among adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 33 countries. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(suppl 2), 16–19. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Voráčová, J., Sigmund, E., Sigmundová, D., & Kalman, M. (2015). Changes in eating behaviours among Czech children and adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC study). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(12), 15888–15899. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walsh, S. D., Bruckauf, Z., & Gaspar, T. (2016). Adolescents at risk: Psychosomatic health complaints, low life satisfaction, excessive sugar consumption and their relationship with cumulative risks. In Innocenti working paper 2016–13. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research.Google Scholar