A Reliability Generalization on the Children’s Hope Scale

Abstract

The Children’s Hope Scale is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of a child’s future oriented goal motivation. This study presents a reliability generalization on both the internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates for the Children’s Hope Scale. While 225 published works were analyzed 4.2% authors did not report reliability estimates for their study and 10.7% induced from a previous study. The average internal consistency score (N = 164) was .81 (95% CI = .79 -- .82) and the test-retest (N = 15) at .71 (95% CI = .64 -- .78) respectively. An analysis of variance showed that non-English language samples produced moderately lower (albeit still acceptable) Cronbach’s Alpha estimates. The results of the reliability generalization suggest the score reliabilities produced by the Children’s Hope Scale are acceptable across samples. The findings of this study paired with the growing number of validation studies suggest researchers can use of the Children’s Hope Scale with increased confidence.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Barnum, D. D., Snyder, C. R., Rapoff, M. A., Mani, M. M., & Thompson, R. (1998). Hope and social support in the psychological adjustment of pediatric burn survivors and matched controls. Children’s Health Care, 27, 15–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ben-Arieh, A. (2008). The child indicators movement: Past, present, and future. Child Indicators Research, 1, 3–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2015). Hope in early adolescence: Measuring internal and external locus-of-hope. Child Indicators Research, 8, 699–715.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chang, E. C., & DeSimone, S. L. (2001). The influence of hope on appraisals, coping, and dysphoria: A test of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 117–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., Kashdan, T. B., Heaven, P. C. L., & Barkus, E. (2015). Hope and emotional well-being: A six-year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 510–532.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Edwards, L. M., Ong, A. D., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Hope measurement in Mexican American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 29, 225–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Frank, J. D. (1968). The role of hope in psychotherapy. International Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 383–395.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Gailliot, M. T., & Baumeister, R. F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 166–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Gullicksen, H. (1950). Theory of mental tests. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Haroz, E.E., Jordans, M., de Jong, J., Gross, A., Bass, J., & Tol, W. (2015). Measuring hope among children affected by armed conflict: Cross-cultural construct validity of the Children’s hope scale. Assessment, 1-12. doi:10.1080/13676261.2012.663895.

  13. Hellman, C. M., & Gwinn, C. (2016). Camp HOPE as an intervention for children exposed to domestic violence: A program evaluation of hope and strength of character. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. doi:10.1007/s10560-016-0460-6.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Henson, R. K. (2001). Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 34, 177–189.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Howell, R. T., & Shields, A. L. (2008). The file drawer problem in reliability generalization: A strategy to compute a fail-safe N with reliability coefficients. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 120–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Lewis, H. A., & Kliewer, W. (1996). Hope, coping, and adjustment among children with sickle cell disease: Tests of mediator and moderator models. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 25–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Lord, F. M., Novick, M. R., & Birnbaum, A. (1968). Statistical theories of mental test scores. Oxford: Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Marques, S. C., Pais-Ribeiro, J. L., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale. School Psychology International, 30, 538–551.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2011). “Building hope for the future”: A program to foster strengths in middle-school students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 139–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Menninger, K. (1959). The academic lecture on hope. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 481–491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Pedhauzer, E. J. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research (3rd ed.). Orlando: Harcourt College.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Pedrotti, J. T., Edwards, L., & Lopez, S. J. (2008). Promoting hope: Suggestions for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 12, 100–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Pulido-Martos, M., Jimenez-Moral, J. A., Lopez-Zafra, E., & Ruiz, J. R. (2014). An adaptation of the children’s hope scale in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 7, 267–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Saleebey, D. (2000). Power in the people: Strengths and hope. Advances in Social Work, 1, 127–136.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Savahl, S., Casas, F., & Adams, S. (2016). Validation of the children’s hope scale amongst a sample of adolescents in the western cape region of South Africa. Child Indicators Research, 9, 701–713.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Shadlow, J. O., Boles, R. E., Roberts, M. C., & Winston, L. (2015). Native American children and their reports of hope: Construct validation of the Children’s hope scale. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1707–1714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Smaldino, A. (1975). The importance of hope in the casework relationship. Social Casework, 56, 328–333.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Snyder, C. R. (2000). The past and possible futures of hope. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 11–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Snyder, C. R. (2004). Hope and depression: A light in the darkness. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 347–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Snyder, C. R., Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Rapoff, M., Ware, L., Danovsky, M., Highberger, L., Rubinstein, H., & Stahl, K. J. (1997). The development and validation of the Children’s hope scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Steca, P., Monzani, D., Greco, A., & D’Addario, M. (2016). The effects of short-term personal goals on subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 1435–1450.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Thompson, B. (2003). Score reliability: Contemporary thinking on reliability issues. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Vacha-Haase, T. (1998). Reliabilty generalization: Exploring variance in. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58, 6–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2004). Further evaluation of the Children’s hope scale. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22, 320–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Valle, M. F., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). An analysis of hope as a psychological strength. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 393–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wilkinson, L., & The APA Task Force on Statistical Inference. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist, 54, 594–604.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Worrell, F. C., & Hale, R. L. (2001). The relationship of hope in the future and perceived school climate to school completion. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Yin, P., & Fan, X. (2000). Assessing the reliability of Beck Depression Inventory scores: Reliability generalization across studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 201–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. You, S., Furlong, M. J., Felix, E., Sharkey, J. D., Tanigawa, D., & Green, J. G. (2008). Relations among school connectedness, hope, life satisfaction, and bully victimization. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 446–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chan M. Hellman.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hellman, C.M., Munoz, R.T., Worley, J.A. et al. A Reliability Generalization on the Children’s Hope Scale. Child Ind Res 11, 1193–1200 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9467-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Children’s hope scale
  • Measurement
  • Reliability
  • Reliability generalization