Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 459–485 | Cite as

How Big is the Gap in Wellbeing between Marginalised and Non-Marginalised Young People as They Approach Adolescence? Evidence from a National Survey of 9–14 Year Old Australians

  • Gerry RedmondEmail author
  • Jasmine Huynh
  • Vanessa Maurici
Article
  • 510 Downloads

Abstract

While research shows that wellbeing among disadvantaged or marginalised young people is often low, few analyses compare wellbeing across different groups of young people recognised by policy as marginalised, and the non-marginalised. This paper examines the extent to which wellbeing varies across five marginalised groups (young people with disability, young carers, materially disadvantaged young people, young people from non-English speaking background, and Indigenous young people) and the non-marginalised. Analysis was conducted on data from a nationally representative sample of 9–14 year old Australians in school years 4, 6 and 8 (N = 5440), designed following extensive consultations with young people. Their perspectives shaped the construction of the wellbeing index, operationalised using 12 indicators within domains of family, peer relationships, health, school, and life satisfaction. Analysis found a significant gap in wellbeing between young people with disability, young carers and materially disadvantaged young people on the one hand, and the non-marginalised on the other. Analysis also found gaps between Indigenous young people and the non-marginalised but these were mostly not significant. However, there was little difference in wellbeing between young people from non-English speaking background and the non-marginalised. For four of the five groups, gaps were larger among 13–14 year olds than among 9–12 year olds. Young people from non-English speaking backgrounds were exceptions in this respect. Latent Class Analysis was used to identify different wellbeing clusters. Odds of three marginalised groups (with disability, carers and materially disadvantaged) being in the lowest wellbeing cluster were particularly high, after controlling for other factors. However, half of those in the lowest wellbeing cluster were not in any of the marginalised groups. The analysis concludes that young people’s wellbeing can best be enhanced through universalist policies that seek to include everyone rather than only through targeting specific groups.

Keywords

Wellbeing index Wellbeing clusters Marginalised groups Inequality Australia Latent class analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Analysis in this paper was funded by the Australian Research Council through a Linkage Grant (LP120100543), and supported by Partner Organisations: the Australian Government Department of Education and Training, the Australian Government Department of Social Services, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The authors are grateful for comments from the Project Steering Group, chaired by Prof. George Patton, Dr Ben Edwards, participants at the Australian Social Policy Conference, Sydney, September 2015, and two anonymous referees. All analysis and interpretation of results remain the responsibility of the authors alone. For more information on the Australian Child Wellbeing Project, see www.australianchildwellbeing.com.au. Data used in this paper are available for analysis by authorised users from the Australian Data Archive (http://www.ada.edu.au/ada/01309).

Supplementary material

12187_2016_9432_MOESM1_ESM.docx (69 kb)
ESM (DOCX 68 kb)

References

  1. Adamson, P. (2007). An Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries. Report Card No. 7. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
  2. AIHW (2012). A picture of Australia’s children 2012. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW).Google Scholar
  3. Amerijckx, G., & Humblet, P. C. (2014). Child well-being: what does it mean? Children & Society, 28(5), 404–415. doi: 10.1111/chso.12003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, S. (2007). Global perspectives on Children’s unpaid caregiving in the family: research and policy on ‘young carers’ in the UK, Australia, the USA and sub-Saharan Africa. Global Social Policy, 7(1), 23–50. doi: 10.1177/1468018107073892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Binder, M. (2014). Subjective well-being capabilities: bridging the gap between the capability approach and subjective well-being research. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(5), 1197–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boden, J. M., Sanders, J., Munford, R., Liebenberg, L., & McLeod, G. F. H. (2016). Paths to positive development: a model of outcomes in the New Zealand youth transitions study. Child Indicators Research, 9, 889–911. doi: 10.1007/s12187-015-9341-3.
  7. Borsay, A. (2004). Disability and social policy in Britain since 1750: a history of exclusion. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Bradshaw, J., Keung, A., Rees, G., & Goswami, H. (2011). Children’s subjective well-being: international comparative perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(4), 548–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., & Maritato, N. (1999). Poor families, poor outcomes: the well-being of children and youth. In G. J. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 1–17). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concern. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cass, B., Smith, C., Hill, T., Blaxland, M., & Hamilton, M. (2009). Young carers in Australia: understanding the advantages and disadvantages of their care giving. FaHCSIA Social Policy Research Paper No. 38.Google Scholar
  12. Cassidy, T., & Giles, M. (2013). Further exploration of the young carers perceived stress scale: identifying a benefit-finding dimension. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18(3), 642–655. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiu, M. M., Pong, S.-L., Mori, I., & Chow, B. W.-Y. (2012). Immigrant students’ emotional and cognitive engagement at school: a multilevel analysis of students in 41 countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(11), 1409–1425. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9763-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, T. C., Fleming, T., Bullen, P., Denny, S., Crengle, S., Dyson, B., et al. (2013). Youth’12 overview: the health and wellbeing of New Zealand secondary school students in 2012. Auckland: The University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  16. Commonwealth of Australia (2015). Gowing up in australia: the longitudinal study of australian children questionnaires. www.growingupinaustralia.gov.au. Accessed 18 Aug 2015.
  17. Constantine, N., & Bernard, B. (2001). California healthy kids survey resilience assessment module: technical report. Berkeley: Public Health Institute.Google Scholar
  18. Creswell, J., Lietz, P., Rust, K., & Adams, R. (2015). Large-scale assessments in education. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hearn, L., Epstein, M., Monks, H., Lester, L., et al. (2009). Australian covert bullying prevalence study (ACBPS). Child Health Promotion Research Centre: Edith Cowan University, Perth.Google Scholar
  20. Cummins, R. A. (2013). Subjective well-being, Homeostatically protected mood and depression: a synthesis. In A. Delle Fave (Ed.), The exploration of happiness: present and future perspectives (pp. 77–95). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummins, R. A. (2014). Understanding the well-being of children and adolescents through homeostatic theory. In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes, & J. E. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being: theories, methods and policies in global perspective (pp. 635–661). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Currie, C., Molcho, M., Boyce, W., Holstein, B., Torsheim, T., & Richter, M. (2008). Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) family affluence scale. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1429–1436. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., de Looze, M., Roberts, C., et al. (2012a). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  24. Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., de Looze, M., Roberts, C., et al. (2012b). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Coperhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  25. Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: an exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32(2), 185–199. doi: 10.1016/0022-4405(94)90010-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dinisman, T. & Rees, G. (2014). Children’s worlds: findings from the first wave of data collection, November 2014, Children’s Worlds: International Survey of Children’s Well-being (ISCWeB). http://www.isciweb.org/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/FirstWaveReport_FINAL(2).pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2016.
  27. Dodge, R., Daly, A. P., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. D. (2012). The challenge of defining wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2(3), 222–235. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v2i3.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., et al. (2005). Childhood residential mobility and multiple health risks during adolescence and adulthood: the hidden role of adverse childhood experiences. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(12), 1104–1110. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.159.12.1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duncan, G. J., Yeung, W. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Smith, J. R. (1998). How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children? American Sociological Review, 63(3), 406–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Early, L., Cushway, D., & Cassidy, T. (2006). Perceived stress in young carers: development of a measure. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(2), 165–176. doi: 10.1007/s10826-005-9011-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eime, R. M., Young, J. A., Harvey, J. T., Charity, M. J., & Payne, W. R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elgar, F. J., De Clercq, B., Schnohr, C. W., Bird, P., Pickett, K. E., Torsheim, T., et al. (2013a). Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 91, 25–31. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Emerson, E., Honey, A., & Llewellyn, G. (2008). The well-being and aspirations of australian adolescents and young adults with a long-term health condition, disability or impairment. Sydney: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney. https://www.aracy.org.au/publications-resources/command/download_file/id/153/filename/The_well-being_and_aspirations_of_Australian_adolescents_and_young_adults_with_a_long-term_health_condition,_disability_or_impairment.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2016.
  34. Fattore, T., Mason, J., & Watson, E. (2007). Children’s conceptualisation(s) of their well-being. Social Indicators Research, 80(1), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fernandes, L., Mendes, A., & Teixeira, A. (2012). A review essay on the measurement of child well-being. Social Indicators Research, 106(2), 239–257. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9814-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foley, K. R., Blackmore, A. M., Girdler, S., O’Donnell, M., Glauert, R., Llewllyn, G., et al. (2012). To feel belonged: the voices of children and youth with disabilities on the meaning of wellbeing. Child Indicators Research, 5(2), 375–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Forrest, C. B., Bevans, K. B., Riley, A. W., Crespo, R., & Louis, T. A. (2013). Health and school outcomes during Children’s transition into adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2), 186–194. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gillett-Swan, J. K., & Sargeant, J. (2014). Wellbeing as a process of accrual: beyond subjectivity and beyond the moment. Social Indicators Research, 121(1), 135–148. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0634-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gordon, D., Levitas, R., Pantazis, C., Patsios, D., Payne, S., Townsend, P., et al. (2000). Poverty and social exclusion in Britain. York: Josepth Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  40. Gorecki, S., & Kelly, J. (2012). Treasury’s Wellbeing Framework. Canberra: The Treasury. Economic Roundup Issue 3.Google Scholar
  41. Goswami, H. (2013). Children’s subjective well-being: socio-demographic characteristics and personality. [journal article]. Child Indicators Research, 7(1), 119–140. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross-Manos, D., Shimoni, E., & Ben-Arieh, A. (2014). Subjective well-being measures tested with 12-year-olds in Israel. Child Indicators Research, 8(1), 71–92. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9282-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hansen, D. M., Larson, R. W., & Dworkin, J. B. (2003). What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: a survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13(1), 25–55. doi: 10.1111/1532-7795.1301006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Initial development of the student’s life satisfaction scale. School Psychology International, 12(3), 231–240. doi: 10.1177/0143034391123010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Inchley, J., Currie, D., Young, T., Samdal, O., Torsheim, T., Augustson, L., et al. (2016). Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s health and well-being. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2013/2014 survey. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 7. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  47. Jackson, N., Denny, S., Sheridan, J., Fleming, T., Clark, T., Teevale, T., et al. (2014). Predictors of drinking patterns in adolescence: a latent class analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 135, 133–139. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.11.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katz, I., & Redmond, G. (2010). Review of the circumstances among children in immigrant families in Australia. Child Indicators Research, 3(4), 439–458. doi: 10.1007/s12187-010-9069-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klocke, A., Clair, A., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). International variation in child subjective well-being. Child Indicators Research, 7(1), 1–20. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9213-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knies, G. (2011). Life satisfaction and material well-being of young people in the UK. In S. L. McFall & C. Garrington (Eds.), Early findings from the first wave of the UK’s household longitudinal study. Colchester: Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex.Google Scholar
  51. Lalonde, C. E. (2006). Identity formation and cultural resilience in aboriginal communities. In R. J. Flynn, P. M. Dudding, & J. G. Barber (Eds.), Promoting resilience in child welfare (pp. 52–71). Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
  52. Lamb, V. L., Land, K., Meadows, S. O., & Fasaha, T. (2005). Trends in African-American child well-being: 1985–2001. In V. McLoyd, N. Hill, & K. Dodge (Eds.), African American family life: ecological and cultural diversity (pp. 45–77). New York and London: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Land, K. J. (2009). The 2009 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report. Foundation for Child Development and Youth Well-being.Google Scholar
  54. Levin, K., & Currie, C. (2014). Reliability and validity of an adapted version of the Cantril ladder for use with adolescent samples. Social Indicators Research, 119(2), 1047–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lietz, P., O’Grady, E., Tobin, M., Popple, H., Hamilton, M., & Redmond, G. (2015). The ACWP Quesitonnaire: Results of the Field Trial. The Australian Child Wellbeing Proejct: Phase Three Report. Flinders University, University of New South Wales, Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  56. Lietz, P., O’Grady, E., Tobin, M., McEntee, A., & Redmond, G. (2013). Towards the ACWP Questionnaire - The Australian Child Wellbeing Project: Phase Two Report. Flinders University, the Universityof NSW and the Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  57. Lietz, P., O’Grady, E., Tobin, M., Murphy, M., Macaskill, G., Redmond, G., et al. (2016). Australian Child Wellbeing Project: Technical Survey Report. Australian Council for Educational Research and Flinders University.Google Scholar
  58. Lister, R. (2004). Poverty. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  59. Llewellyn, G., & Leonard, H. (2010). Indicators of health and well-being for children and young people with disabilities: mapping the terrain and proposing a human rights approach. Canberra: ARACY.Google Scholar
  60. Lloyd, K. (2012). Happiness and well-being of young carers: extent, nature and correlates of caring among 10 and 11 Year old school children. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 67–80. doi: 10.1007/s10902-011-9316-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Määttä, H., Hurtig, T., Taanila, A., Honkanen, M., Ebeling, H., & Koivumaa-Honkanen, H. (2013). Childhood chronic physical condition, self-reported health, and life satisfaction in adolescence. European Journal of Pediatrics, 172(9), 1197–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Main, G. (2014). A child-derived material deprivation index. PhD Thesis, University of York.Google Scholar
  63. McClure, A. C., Tanski, S. E., Kingsbury, J., Gerrard, M., & Sargent, J. D. (2010). Characteristics associated with low self-esteem among US adolescents. Academic Pediatrics, 10(4), 238–244.e232. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2010.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meltzer, H., Gatward, R., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2003). Mental health of children and adolescents in great Britain. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1–2), 185–187. doi: 10.1080/0954026021000046155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Minkkinen, J. (2013). The structural model of child well-being. Child Indicators Research, 6(3), 547–558. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9178-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mitrou, F., Cooke, M., Lawrence, D., Povah, D., Mobilia, E., Guimond, E., et al. (2014). Gaps in indigenous disadvantage not closing: a census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand from 1981 to 2006. [journal article]. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(5), 602–611. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nic Gabhainn, S., & Sixsmith, J. (2005). Children’s Understandings of Well-Being. Centre for Health Promotion Studies, Department of Health Promotion, National University of Ireland, Galway and the The National Children’s Office, Dublin, Ireland.Google Scholar
  69. O’Hare, W. P., & Gutierrez, F. (2012). The use of domains in constructing a comprehensive composite index of child well-being. Child Indicators Research, 5, 609–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Hare, W. P. (2014). A research note on statistical methods used to create indices of child well-being. Child Indicators Research, 8(2), 279–298. doi: 10.1007/s12187-014-9244-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. OECD (2015). How’s life? 2015: measuring well-being. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pollard, E. L., & Lee, P. D. (2003). Child well-being: a systematic review of the literature. [journal article]. Social Indicators Research, 61(1), 59–78. doi: 10.1023/a:1021284215801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raghavan, R., & Alexandrova, A. (2014). Toward a theory of child well-being. [journal article]. Social Indicators Research, 121(3), 887–902. doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0665-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Redmond, G. (2009). Children as actors: how does the child perspectives literature treat agency in the context of poverty? Social Policy and Society, 8(04), 541–550. doi: 10.1017/S147474640999011X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Redmond, G., Skattebol, J., Saunders, P., Lietz, P., Zizzo, G., O’Grady, E., et al. (2016). Are the kids alright? Young Australians in their middle years: Final report of the Australian Child Wellbeing Project. Flinders University, University of New South Wales and Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  76. Rees, G., Goswami, H., & Bradshaw, J. (2010). Developing an index of children’s subjective well-being in England. London: The Children’s Society.Google Scholar
  77. Rees, G., Goswami, H., Pople, L., Bradshaw, J., Keung, A., & Main, G. (2013). The good childhood report 2013. London: The Children’s Society.Google Scholar
  78. Rees, G., & Main, G. (2015). Children’s views on their lives and well-being in 15 countries: an initial report on the Children’s worlds survey, 2013–14. York: Children’s Worlds Project (ISCWeB).Google Scholar
  79. Rees, G., Pople, L., & Goswami, H. (2011). Understanding children’s well-being: links between family economic factors and children’s subjective well-being: initial findings from wave 2 and wave 3 quarterly surveys. London: The Children’s Society.Google Scholar
  80. Reiss, F. (2013). Socioeconomic inequalities and mental health problems in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 24–31. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ringen, S. (1988). Direct and indirect measures of poverty. Journal of Social Policy, 17(3), 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Roberts, D., Bernard, M., Misca, G., & Head, E. (2008). Experiences of children and young people caring for a parent with a mental health problem. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.Google Scholar
  83. Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. M., Hymel, S., Sweiss, L., & Hertzman, C. (2013). Development and validation of the middle years development instrument (MDI): assessing Children’s well-being and assets across multiple contexts. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 345–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schumann, L., Craig, W., & Rosu, A. (2013). Minority in the majority: community ethnicity as a context for racial bullying and victimization. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(8), 959–972. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sentenac, M., Gavin, A., Gabhainn, S. N., Molcho, M., Due, P., Ravens-Sieberer, U., et al. (2013). Peer victimization and subjective health among students reporting disability or chronic illness in 11 western countries. The European Journal of Public Health, 23(3), 421–426. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cks073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skattebol, J., Saunders, P., Redmond, G., Bedford, M., & Cass, B. (2012). Making a difference: building on young people’s experiences of economic adversity: final report. Sydney: Social Policy Research Centre, the University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  87. Skovdal, M., & Andreouli, E. (2011). Using identity and recognition as a framework to understand and promote the resilience of caregiving children in western Kenya. Journal of Social Policy, 40(03), 613–630. doi: 10.1017/S0047279410000693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sonderegger, R., & Barrett, P. M. (2004). Patterns of cultural adjustment among young migrants to Australia. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Statham, J., & Chase, E. (2010). Child wellbeing: a brief overview. London: Child Wellbeing Research Centre.Google Scholar
  90. Tomyn, A. J., Cummins, R. A., & Norrish, J. M. (2015). The subjective wellbeing of ‘At-Risk’indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 813–837. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9535-2.
  91. Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). School satisfaction of elementary school children: the role of performance, peer relations, ethnicity and gender. [journal article]. Social Indicators Research, 59(2), 203–228. doi: 10.1023/a:1016279602893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vermunt, J., & Magdison, J. (2002). Latent class cluster Analysls. In J. A. Hagenaars & A. L. McCutcheon (Eds.), Applied latent class analysis (pp. 89–106). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vingilis, E. R., Wade, T. J., & Seeley, J. S. (2002). Predictors of adolescent self-rated health: analysis of the National Population Health Survey. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93(3), 193–197.Google Scholar
  94. Waldrip, A. M., Malcolm, K. T., & Jensen-Campbell, L. A. (2008). With a little help from your friends: the importance of high-quality friendships on early adolescent adjustment. Social Development, 17(4), 832–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wendelborg, C., & Tøssebro, J. (2010). Marginalisation processes in inclusive education in Norway: a longitudinal study of classroom participation. Disability & Society, 25(6), 701–714. doi: 10.1080/09687599.2010.505744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wolff, J., & de Shalit, A. (2007). Disadvantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social and Policy StudiesFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.School of Management, Centre for Workplace ExcellenceUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations