School Aged Children of Incarcerated Parents: the Effects of Alternative Criminal Sentencing
- 581 Downloads
Psychological folklore and empirical evidence suggest children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes throughout life. While researchers and practitioners have aimed to understand and mitigate these risks, no study to date has examined how alternative sentencing affects child outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if maternal alternative criminal sentencing affected children’s behavior and parent–child attachment as reported by children. Children ages 8–14 whose mothers were recently released from an alternative criminal sentencing program were compared with children whose mothers had been recently released from prison. One hundred and two mothers and their children participated in this study. Results revealed statistically significant differences with children of alternatively sentenced mothers performed better on externalizing behavioral problems, total behavioral problems, parental trust, parental alienation, parental communication, and total parent–child attachment.
KeywordsParental incarceration/imprisonment Alternative criminal sentencing Maternal sentencing Behavior problems Attachment Children of incarcerated parents
- Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
- Agnew, R. (2006). General strain theory: Current status and directions for further research. Taking stock: The status of criminological theory. (pp. 101–123). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment. Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Bussell, T.J. (2014). The effect of parental incarceration on high school outcomes. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text: Social Sciences. (1426647436).Google Scholar
- Carson, E. A., & Golinelli, D. (2013). Prisoners in 2012: Trends in admissions and releases 1991–2012. Washington: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
- Carson, E.A. & Sabol, W.J. (2012). Prisoners in 2011. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013a). Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. http://www.cdc.gov/ace/index.htm.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013b). Data & statistics: Prevalence. Austism Information Center. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html.
- Family Children’s Services of Tulsa (2013). Women in recovery. Retrieved October 1, 2013, from Family Children’s Services of Tulsa: http://www.fcsok.org/services/women-in-recovery/.
- George Kaiser Family Foundatation (2013) Women in recovery. [electronic resource] Retrieved from: http://www.gkff.org/areas-of-focus/female-incarceration/women-in-recovery.html.
- Glaze, L.E. & Herberman, E.J. (2013). Correctional populations in the United States, 2012. Lauren E. Glaze and Erinn J. Herberman [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics 2013.Google Scholar
- Glaze, L.E. & Maruschak, L.M. (2010). Parents in prison and their minor children [electronic resource]. / Lauren E. Glaze and Laura M. Maruschak. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2008. (Original work published 2008).Google Scholar
- Harris, Y. R., Graham, J. D., & Carpenter, G. (2010). Children of incarcerated parents: Theoretical, developmental, and clinical issues. New York: Springer Pub. Co.Google Scholar
- Jimenez, C.C. (2014). The relationship between parental incarceration and incarceration. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text: Social Sciences. (1427361927).Google Scholar
- Oklahoma Department of Corrections (2012). Did you know: Facts & frequently asked questions. Oklahoma Department of Corrections. Retrieved from: http://www.doc.state.ok.us/newsroom/publications/did_you_know.htm.
- Oklahoma Department of Corrections (2014). Facts at a glance. Oklahoma Department of Corrections. Retrieved from: https://www.ok.gov/doc/documents/DOC_Facts_At_A_Glance_June%202014.pdf.
- Pearson, R. (2009). Rural alternative sentencing: Variables that influence the substance abuse offender’s success (Order No. AAI3342451). Available from PsycINFO.Google Scholar
- Pew Center on the States (2010). Collateral costs: Incarceration’s effect on economic mobility. Washington, DC: The Pew Charitable Trusts. : http://www.pewstates.org/uploadedFiles/PCS_Assets/2010/Collateral_Costs(1).pdf.
- Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. (2004). The 2004 political landscape: Evenly divided and increasingly polarized. Washington: Pew Charitable Trusts.Google Scholar
- Sharp, S.F., Pain, E., & Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth. (2010). Oklahoma Study of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Children.Google Scholar
- Sharp, S.F., Jones, M.S., & McLeod, D.A. (2014). A study of incarcerated mothers and their children - 2014. The University of Oklahoma, Department of Sociology. Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, George Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Oklahoma Department of Corrections.Google Scholar
- Sroufe, L., Carlson, E., & Shulman, S. (1993). Individuals in relationships: Development from infancy through adolescence. In D. C. Funder, R. D. Parke, C. Tomlinson-Keasey, & K. Widaman (Eds.), Studying lives through time: Approaches to personality and development (pp. 315–342). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar