Child Indicators Research

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 141–170 | Cite as

An Intrinsic characteristics and Value of Poverty Indicators”: a New Method for Deriving Child Living Condition Scores and Poverty, in Uganda

  • Cyprian MisindeEmail author


Both direct and indirect methods of child poverty computations remain contentious. More research and development of appropriate methods of child poverty measurements sensitive to the conditions in which children live, is needed. This article is an elaboration of a new intrinsic value approach for the computation of Child Living Conditions Scores (CLCS), and poverty in Uganda. Once CLCS is computed, appropriate poverty threshold can be chosen to delineate the poor children from the non-poor as demonstrated using the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) data for 2011. The results show that the intrinsic value method is not only a robust approach for the computation of CLCS and child poverty, but also a method which may be used in substitution for the Principle component methods of computing wealth index.


Intrinsic values Child living conditions scores Child poverty Child well-being Poverty measurement 



Without the Commonwealth Scholarship, and funding from Queen’s University, Belfast, I wouldn’t have been in position to produce this work. It was through the support of the commonwealth Scholarship Commission and Queen’s University, which enabled me to pursue a Doctoral study which resulted into the idea developed in this work. I also thank Professor Mike Tomlinson of School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen’s University Belfast, for his guidance and support for this work.


  1. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011a). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7), 476–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011b). Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 289–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkire, S., & Roche, J. M., (2011). Beyond headcount: measures that reflect the breadth and components of child poverty.Google Scholar
  4. Alkire, S., & Roche, J. M. (2012). Beyond headcount: The alkire-foster approach to multidimensional child poverty measurement. Child Poverty and Inequality: New Perspectives, 18–22.Google Scholar
  5. Boltvinik, J. (2011). Multidimensional Poverty Measurement Methods (MPMM) and the two official MPMM being applied in Mexico. Paper presented at the Second Peter Townsend Memorial Conference, Bristol.Google Scholar
  6. Bonnefoy, X. (2007). Inadequate housing and health: an overview. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 30(3–4), 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). In, Vol. 3, 2nd ed. Reprinted in: (Eds.), Reading on the Development of Children, 2nd Ed. (1993, pp. 37–43). NY Ecological models of human development. In M. Gauvain & M. Cole (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed., Vol. 3). New York: Oxford: Elsevier. (Reprinted from: Reading on the Development of Children).Google Scholar
  8. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1999). Environments in developmental perspective: Theoretical and Operational models. In S. L. Friedman & T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Measuring environment across the life span: Emerging methods and concepts (pp. 3–28). Washington: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, A.P. (n.d). The bioecological model of human development.Google Scholar
  10. Cappellari, L., & Jenkins, S. P. (2006). Summarizing multiple deprivation indicators. ISER Working Paper Series.Google Scholar
  11. Corak, M. (2005). Principles and practicalities for measuring child poverty in the rich countries.Google Scholar
  12. Corsaro, A. W. (2011). The sociology of childhood (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Das, A., Manickam, P., Hutin, Y., Pal, B. B., Chhotray, G. P., Kar, S. K., & Gupte, M. D. (2009). An outbreak of cholera associated with an unprotected well in Parbatia, Orissa, Eastern India. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 27(5), 646.Google Scholar
  14. Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2001). Change in family income-to-needs matters more for children with less. Child Development, 1779–1793.Google Scholar
  15. Deeming, C. (2010a). Determining minimum standards of living and household budgets: Methodological issues. Journal of Sociology, 47(1), 17–34. doi: 10.1177/1440783310386825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deeming, C. (2010b). Historical development of family budget standards in Britain, from the 17th century to the present. Social Policy and Administration, 44(7), 765–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deghati, S. Y. F., Mora, M. A., & de Neubourg, C. (2012). Multidimensional child deprivation in Iran. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being, 325.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Works and Pensions. (2012). Measuring child poverty: A consultations on better measures of child poverty. London: The Stationary Office Retrieved from
  19. Dieden, S., & Gustafsson, B. (2003). Child poverty in South Africa: an assessment based on microdata for 1995. International Journal of Social Welfare, 12(4), 326–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, W. G. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, W. G. (2006). Child development and the physical environment. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 423–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, W. G., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73(4), 1238–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans, C. A., Coombes, P. J., & Dunstan, R. H. (2006). Wind, rain and bacteria: the effect of weather on the microbial composition of roof-harvested rainwater. Water Research, 40(1), 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1951). Kinship and marriage among the Nuer (Vol. 2): Clarendon Press Oxford.Google Scholar
  25. Falkingham, J., & Namazie, C. (2002). Measuring health and poverty: A review of approaches to identifying the poor. London: DFID Health Systems Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  26. Field, Andy. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage publications.Google Scholar
  27. Fisher, M. G. . (2007). An overview of recent work on standard budgets in the United States and other Anglophone countries.Google Scholar
  28. Gadgil, A. (1998). Drinking water in developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 23(1), 253–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gordon, D., & Nandy, S. (2012a). Measuring child poverty and deprivation. In S. Minujin & A. Nandy (Eds.), Global child poverty and well-being: Measurement, concepts, policy and action. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gordon, D., & Nandy, S. (2012b). Measuring child poverty and deprivation. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being. Measurement, Concepts, Policy and Action, 57–101.Google Scholar
  31. Gordon, D., Nandy, S., Pantazis, C., Pemberton, S., & Townsend, P. (2003). Child poverty in the developing world. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gordon, D., Lenoel, A., & Nandy, S. (2012). Multidimensional child poverty in Haiti1. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being, 357.Google Scholar
  33. Haralambos, M., Holborn, M., & Heald, R. (2004). Sociology: Themes and perspectives (6th ed.). Hammersmith: Harper Collins Publishers Limited.Google Scholar
  34. Hillyard, P., Kelly, G., McLaughlin, E., Patsios, D., & Tomlinson, M. (2003). Bare necessities: Poverty and social exclusion in Northern Ireland: Key findings. Democratic dialogue report 16. Dublin: Colour Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  35. Hoelscher, P., Richardson, D., & Bradshaw, J. (2012). A snapshot of child well-being in transition countries: exploring new methods of monitoring child well-being. Global child poverty and well-being: Measurement, concepts, policy, and action, 179–206.Google Scholar
  36. Howard, G., Pedley, S., Barrett, M., Nalubega, M., & Johal, K. (2003). Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Research, 37(14), 3421–3429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jensen, J., Spittal, M., Crichton, S., Sathiyandra, S., & Krishnan, V. (2002). Direct measurement of living standards: The New Zealand ELSI scale. Wellington: Ngā Whakaaturanga Ahuatanga Noho.Google Scholar
  38. Khan, M. U., & Shahidullah, M. (1982). Role of water and sanitation in the incidence of cholera in refugee camps. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76(3), 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lawson, D., McKay, A., & Okidi, J. (2006). Poverty persistence and transitions in Uganda: a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis. Journal of Development Studies, 42(7), 1225–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lichter, D. T., Qian, Z., & Crowley, M. L. (2005). Child poverty among racial minorities and immigrants: explaining trends and differentials*. Social Science Quarterly, 86(s1), 1037–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lundy, L. (2013). Child well-being and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: what difference do rights make? In A. Ben-Arieh, F. Casas, I. Frønes & E.J. Korbin (Eds.), Handbook of child well-being theories, methods and policies in global perspective (Vol. 1): Springer Reference.Google Scholar
  42. Lundy, L., McEvoy, L., & Byrne, B. (2011). Working with young children as co-researchers: an approach informed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Early Education & Development, 22(5), 714–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lye, D. J. (2009). Rooftop runoff as a source of contamination: a review. Science of the Total Environment, 407(21), 5429–5434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Magri, M. E., Philippi, L. S., & Vinnerås, B. (2013). Inactivation of pathogens in feces by desiccation and urea treatment for application in urine-diverting dry toilets. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(7), 2156–2163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Main, G., & Bradshaw, J. (2012). A child material deprivation index. Child Indicators Research, 5(3), 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mayall, B. (2002). Towards a sociology for childhood, thinking from children’s lives. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Miles, R., & Jacobs, D. E. (2008). Future directions in housing and public health: findings from Europe with broader implications for planners. Journal of the American Planning Association, 74(1), 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED). (2010). Millennium Development Goals report for Uganda 2010: Accelerating progress towards improving Maternal health. In Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development (Ed.). Kampala: Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development.Google Scholar
  49. Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development- Uganda, UNICEF-Uganda, & Economic Policy Research Centre- Uganda. (2014). Situation analysis of child poverty and deprivation in Uganda. Kampala: Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development- Uganda.Google Scholar
  50. Minujin, A., & Delamonica, D. (2012). Multidimensional child poverty in Tanzania: analysis of situation, changes and sensitivity of thresholds. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being, 263. Google Scholar
  51. Minujin, A., & Nandy, S. (2012). Introduction. In M. Alberto & S. Nandy (Eds.), Global child poverty and well-being: Measurement, concepts, policy and action. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Minujin, A., Delamonica, E., Davidziuk, A., & Gonzalez, E. D. (2006). The definition of child poverty: a discussion of concepts and measurements. Environment and Urbanization, 18(2), 481–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Misinde, C. (2015). Child poverty in Uganda: Is orphanhood enough explanation? (PhD Dissertation), Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast.Google Scholar
  54. Notten, G., de Neubourg, C., Makosso, B., & Mpoue, A. B. (2012). A multidimensional profile of child poverty in Congo Brazzaville. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being, 287.Google Scholar
  55. Okidi, J., & Mugambe, G. K. (2002). An overview of chronic poverty and development policy in Uganda. Chronic Poverty Research Centre Working Paper(11).Google Scholar
  56. Pelig-Ba, K. B., Parker, A., & Price, M. (2001). Elemental contamination of rainwater by airborne dust in Tamale township area of the northern region of Ghana. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 23(4), 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pereznieto, P., Walker, D., Villar, E., & Alder, H. (2014). Child and poverty and deprivation in Uganda: Voices of children. Kampala: Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development; UNICEF Uganda; Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  58. Rauh, V. A., Landrigan, P. J., & Claudio, L. (2008). Housing and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136(1), 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roelen, K., & Gassmann, F. (2012). Multidimensional child poverty in Vietnam. Global Child Poverty and Well-Being: Measurement, Concepts, Policy, and Action, 307–324.Google Scholar
  60. Rummel, R. J. (1988). Applied factor analysis: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Sen, A. (1979). Issues in the measurement of poverty. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 285–307.Google Scholar
  62. Shanks, T. R. W., Kim, Y., Loke, V., & Destin, M. (2010). Assets and child well-being in developed countries. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(11), 1488–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Simmons, G., Hope, V., Lewis, G., Whitmore, J., & Gao, W. (2001). Contamination of potable roof-collected rainwater in Auckland, New Zealand. Water Research, 35(6), 1518–1524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stevens, S. S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement: Bobbs-Merrill, College Division.Google Scholar
  65. Swords, L., Greene, S., Boyd, E., & Kerrin, L. (n.d). All you need is … Measuring children’s perceptions and experiences of deprivation.: Children’s Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin.Google Scholar
  66. Thiele, B. (2002). The human right to adequate housing: a tool for promoting and protecting individual and community health. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 712–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thomson, H., Petticrew, M., & Douglas, M. (2003). Health impact assessment of housing improvements: incorporating research evidence. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57(1), 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thomson, H., Thomas, S., Sellstrom, E., & Petticrew, M. (2009). The health impacts of housing improvement: a systematic review of intervention studies from 1887 to 2007. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S3), S681–S692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Townsend, P, Gordon, D, Bradshaw, J, & Unit, Bristol Univ.. Statistical Monitoring. (1997). Absolute and overall poverty in Britain in 1997 What the population themselves say; British Poverty Line Survey; report of the second MORI survey.Google Scholar
  70. Tumwebaze, I. K., Orach, C. G., Niwagaba, C., Luthi, C., & Mosler, H. J. (2013). Sanitation facilities in Kampala slums, Uganda: users’ satisfaction and determinant factors. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 23(3), 191–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). (2003). Uganda National Household Survey 2002–2003; Report on the Socioeconomic Survey. In Uganda Bureau of Statistics (Ed.). Kampala: Uganda Bureau of StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  72. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). (2006). Uganda National Household Survey 2005/2006; Report on the Socioeconomic Module. In Uganda Bureau of Statistics (Ed.). Kampala: Uganda Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  73. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). (2012a). Compendium of Statistical Concepts and Definitions Kampala: Uganda Bureau of Statistics Retrieved from
  74. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). (2012b). Statistical abstract. Uganda: Kampala.Google Scholar
  75. United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2005). Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention. Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Uganda. (Fortieth session). New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  76. Vyas, S., & Kumaranayake, L. (2006). Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. Health Policy and Planning, 21(6), 459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilkinson, D. (1999). Poor housing and ill health: a summary of research evidence: Scottish Office.Google Scholar
  78. Witter, S., & Bukokhe, J. (2004). Children’s perceptions of poverty, participation, and local governance in Uganda. Development in Practice, 14(5), 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. World Health Organisation (WHO). (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva.Google Scholar
  80. Yaziz, M. I., Gunting, H., Sapari, N., & Ghazali, A. W. (1989). Variations in rainwater quality from roof catchments. Water Research, 23(6), 761–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Makerere UniversityKampalaUganda

Personalised recommendations