Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 445–470 | Cite as

Risk and Marginalization in the Norwegian Welfare Society: a National Cohort Study of Child Welfare Involvement

  • Trine StaerEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study provided a comprehensive investigation of sociodemographic background characteristics of Norwegian families involved in child welfare services (CWS) during either of the two periods 1993–1999 or 2001–2007 and examined how the strong client growth over this period was accompanied by changes in client characteristics. Child welfare clients in two distinct age groups were considered: 0–5 and 13–18 years. Data were drawn from Norwegian longitudinal population registers, and records of CWS involvement for the period 1993–2007. Each birth cohort was evaluated for differences in sociodemographic background through the use of bivariate cross-tab analyses. The unique contribution of each background factor to the odds of CWS involvement was estimated through logistic regression. Separate regression models were constructed for child welfare involvement during pre-school years (0–5) and adolescence (13–18). The results indicated distinct sociodemographic differences between child welfare clients and the general child population throughout the sample and revealed that CWS involvement risk increased with single parent status, number of children born of the mother, low parental educational level, non-Western ethnic background, household income below the poverty line, low maternal age at first birth and age. The findings also indicated a distinct decrease in the statistical influence of most parental risk factors with increasing age and increasing, although relatively moderate differences between CWS clients and the general population from the first to the second period - above all in parental education and ethnic origin.

Keywords

Child welfare clients Cohort study Marginalization Risk factors Welfare society 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by funding from the Norwegian Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion.

References

  1. Backe-Hansen, E., Madsen, C., Kristofersen, L. B., & Hvinden, B. (2014). Barnevern i Norge 1990–2010. En longitudinell studie. Oslo: NOVA.Google Scholar
  2. Barton, P. E. (2005). One third of a nation: rising dropout rates and declining opportunities. Princeton: Educational Testing Service. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED485192.pdf. Retrieved 22-06-2015.
  3. Bebbington, A., & Miles, J. (1989). The background of children who enter local authority care. British Journal of Social Work, 19(1), 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Befring, E., Duesund, L., & Popovici, S. (2013). Familier og barn i krise. Rapport fra forskningsprosjektet: Økningen i tilmeldte til barnevernet – en analyse av utviklingstrekk. Oslo: University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  5. Berger, L. (2004). Income, family structure and child maltreatment risk. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 725–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergjordet, C., Dyrhaug, T., & Haugen, J. Å. (2011). Barnevernet - et tilbud til mange. Samfunnsspeilet, 5, 58–63. https://www.ssb.no/sosiale-forhold-og-kriminalitet/artikler-og-publikasjoner/barnevernet-et-tilbud-til-mange. Accessed 22 June 2015.
  7. Blom, S. (2006). Innvandrere i Norge og Danmark: Høyest innvandrerandel i Oslo, men større segregasjon i danske byer. Samfunnsspeilet, 4, 24–33. http://www.ssb.no/befolkning/artikler-og-publikasjoner/hoyest-innvandrerandel-i-oslo-men-storre-segregasjon-i-danske-byer. Accessed 22 June 2015.
  8. Brandtzæg, B. A., Håkonsen, L., & Lunner, T. E. (2010). Kostnadsutvikingen i det kommunale barnevernet. Hva forklarer økende kostnader til barnevern i kommunene? Bø: Telemarksforskning.Google Scholar
  9. Bridgeland, J. M., DiJulio, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic. Perspectives of hich school dropouts. A report by civic enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart research associates for the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513444.pdf. Accessed 22 June 2015.
  10. Clausen, S.-E. (2000). Barnevern i Norge 1990–1997. En longitudinell studie basert på registerdata. Oslo: NIBR.Google Scholar
  11. Clausen, S.-E., & Kristofersen, L. B. (2008a). Barnevernsklienter i Norge 1990–2005: en longitudinell studie. Oslo: NOVA.Google Scholar
  12. Clausen, S.-E., & Kristofersen, L. B. (2008b). Barnevern 1990–2011: en longitudinell studie av registerdata. Tidsskriftet Norges Barnevern, 3, 39–45.Google Scholar
  13. Clausen, S. E., & Valset, K. (2012). Spedbarn og småbarn med tiltak fra barnevernet 1995–2008: Utbredelse av omsorgssvikt og risikofaktorer. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 49(7), 642–648.Google Scholar
  14. Dworsky, A., Courtney, M. E., & Zinn, A. (2007). Child, parent and family predictors of child welfare services involvement among TANF applicant families. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(6), 802–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ejrnæs, M., Ejrnæs, M., & Frederiksen, S. (2011). Risk factors of entry in out-of-home care: an empirical study of Danish birth cohorts, 1981–2003. Child Indicators Research, 4(1), 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fauske, H., Lichtwarck, W., Marthinsen, E., Willumsen, E., Clifford, G., & Kojan, B. H. (2009). Barnevernet på ny kurs? Det nye barnevernet: Et forsknings -og utviklings- prosjekt i barnevernet. Bodø: Nordlandsforskning.Google Scholar
  17. Franzén, E., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2008). The epidemiology of out-of-home care for children and youth: a national cohort study. British Journal of Social Work, 38(6), 1043–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freysteinsdottir, F. J. (2007). Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in Iceland. Nordisk Sosialt Arbeid, 1, 2–18.Google Scholar
  19. Frønes, I. (2015).The absence of failure: Children at risk in the knowledge based economy. Child Indicators Research. Published online: 10 April 2015. https://vpn2.uio.no/+CSCO+00756767633A2F2F797661782E66636576617472652E70627A++/article/10.1007/s12187-015-9309-3#page-1. Retrieved 22-05-15.
  20. Frønes, I., & Brusdal, R. (2000). På sporet av den nye tid. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.Google Scholar
  21. Frønes, I., & Strømme, H. (2014). Risiko og marginalisering. Norske barns levekår i kunnskapssamfunnet. 2. utgave. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.Google Scholar
  22. Höglund-Davila, E., & Landgren-Möller, E. (1991). Vilka barn omhändertas av samhället? En undersökning av barn födda 1976. In J. Qvist (Ed.), Livsförloppsanalys (pp. 45–65). Örebro: Statistics Sweden.Google Scholar
  23. Iversen, A. C., Jakobsen, R., Havik, T., Hysing, M., & Stormark, K. M. (2007). Mental health problems among child welfare clients living at home. Child Care in Practice, 13(4), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kojan, B. H. (2011a). Klasseblikk på et barnevern i vekst. Trondheim: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  25. Kojan, B. H. (2011b). Norwegian child welfare services: a successful program for protecting and supporting vulnerable families? Australian Social Work, 64(4), 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kojan, B. H., & Fauske, H. (2011). Et klasseperspektiv på barnevernets familier. Tidsskrift for Velferdsforskning, 2, 95–107.Google Scholar
  27. Kojan, B. H., & Lonne, R. (2012). A comparison of systems and outcomes for safeguarding children in Australia and Norway. Child and Family Social Work, 17, 96–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, B., & Goerge, R. (1999). Poverty, early childbearing, and child maltreatment: a multinomial analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 21(9–10), 755–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion (2002).Oppvekst- og levekår for barn og ungdom i Norge. St.meld. nr. 39 (2001–2002). https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/e97cf2ddbcd347328e4fcc70e942de62/no/pdfa/stm200120020039000dddpdfa.pdf. Retrieved 20-05-15.
  30. Mood, C. (2010). Logistic regression: why we cannot do what we think we can do and what we can do about it. European Sociological Review, 26(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nadim, M., & Nielsen, R. A. (2009). Barnefattigdom i Norge. Omfang, utvikling og geografisk variasjon. Oslo: Fafo.Google Scholar
  32. Needell, B., & Barth, R. P. (1998). Infants entering foster care compared to other infants using birth status indicators. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(12), 1179–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Needell, B., Cuccaro-Alamin, S., Brookhart, A., & Lee, S. (1999). Transitions from AFDC to child welfare in California. Children and Youth Services Review, 21(9/10), 815–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norwegian Child Welfare Act (1992). Act of July 1992 no 100 Relating to Child Welfare Services. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/the-child-welfare-act/id448398/. Retrieved 20-05-2015.
  35. Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs (2012). Å vokse opp. http://www.bufetat.no/Documents/Bufetat.no/Barnevern/Aa_Vokse_Opp/Aa_Vokse_Opp.pdf Retrieved 04-12-2014.
  36. Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs (2015). Barn som får hjelp fra barnevernet. http://www.bufdir.no/nn/Statistikk_og_analyse/Oppvekst/Familie_omsorg_og_relasjoner/Barn_som_mottar_tiltak_fra_barnevernet Retrieved 25-05-2015.
  37. OECD (2012). Equity and equality in education: Supporting disadvantaged students and schools. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/edu/preschoolandschool/49478474.pdf. Retrieved 15-15-2015.
  38. Putnam-Hornstein, E., & Needell, B. (2011). Predictors of child protective service contact between birth and age five: an examination of California’s 2002 birth cohort. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1337–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Putnam-Hornstein, E., Needell, B., King, B., & Johnson-Motoyama, M. (2013). Racial and Ethnic disparities: a population-based examination of risk factors for involvement with child protective services. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(1–3), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riksrevisjonen (2015). Riksrevisjonens undersøking av barnefattigdom. Document 3:11 (2013–2014). https://www.riksrevisjonen.no/rapporter/Documents/2013-2014/Barnefattigdom.pdf. Retrieved: 26.05.15.
  41. Rød, P. A., Iversen, A. C., & Underlid, K. (2013). The child welfare service’s assessments in custody cases that involve minors. European Journal of Social Work, 16(4), 470–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Simmel, C. (2010). Why do adolescents become involved with the child welfare system? Exploring risk factors that affect young adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(12), 1831–1836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Skivenes, M. (2011). Norway – toward a child centric perspective. In N. Gilbert, N. Parton, & M. Skivenes (Eds.), Child protection systems: international trends and emerging orientations (pp. 154–179). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Statistics Norway (2015). «Statbank» Calculated on the basis of child welfare statistics; https://www.ssb.no/statistikkbanken/selecttable/hovedtabellHjem.asp?KortNavnWeb=barneverng&CMSSubjectArea=sosiale-forhold-og-kriminalitet&checked=true. Accessed 26 May 2015.
  45. The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organization (2014). Fattigdom og levekår i Norge. Tilstand og utviklingstrekk – 2014. Report 3, 2014. https://www.nav.no/no/NAV+og+samfunn/Kunnskap/Analyser/Nyheter/%C3%98kte+forskjeller+i+Norge.401553.cms. Retrieved 09-05-2015.
  46. Vinnerljung, B., Franzén, E., Gustavsson, B., & Johansson, I.-M. (2008). Out of home care among immigrant children in Sweden—a national cohort study. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17, 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral DevelopmentUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations