Advertisement

Child Indicators Research

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 247–260 | Cite as

The Absence of Failure: Children at Risk in the Knowledge Based Economy

  • Ivar FrønesEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study seeks to identify the relationship between educational failure in compulsory schooling and the risk of social exclusion, a relation assumed to be strengthened by the coming of the knowledge-based economies. Although educational achievements correlate with the socioeconomic status (SES) of the parents, students whose backgrounds are characterized by socioeconomic risk factors seem to be influenced by this to only a modest degree if educational achievements are above a certain level; below this level there is high risk for future marginalization, regardless of the socioeconomic position of the parents. Poor school performances correlate strongly with the risk of later problem behaviour and welfare dependency. Young people with a public care background are especially disadvantaged in relation to schooling.

Keywords

Childhood Marginalization Educational achievements Children in public care 

References

  1. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barton, P. E. (2005) One third of a nation: Rising dropout rates and declining opportunities. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICONETHIRD.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  3. Berlin, M., Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2011). School performance in primary school and psychosocial problems in young adulthood among care leavers from long-term foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(12), 2489–2497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J. Jr, & Burke Morrison, K. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. A report by Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513444.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  6. Cameron, C., Jackson, S., Hauari, H., & Hollingworth, K. (2012). Continuing educational participation among children in care in five countries: some issues of social class. Journal of Education Policy, 27(3), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caspi, A., Wright, B. R., Moffitt, T. R., & Silva, P. A. (1998). Early failure in the labor market: childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 63(3), 424–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clausen, J. S. (1991). Adolescent competence and the shaping of the life course. American Journal of Sociology, 96(4), 805–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clausen, S. E. & Kristofersen, L. B. (2008). Barnevernsklienter i Norge 1990–2005. http://www.nova.no/asset/3236/1/3236_1.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  10. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement), 95–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, F., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D. & York, R. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED012275. Accessed 2 Feb 2015.
  12. Corcoran, M., & Matsudaira, J. (2005). Is it getting harder to get ahead? Economic attainment in early adulthood for two cohorts. In R. A. Settersten Jr., F. F. Furstenberg Jr., & R. G. Rumbaut (Eds.), On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy (pp. 256–396). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. (2007). The technology of skill formation. American Economic Review, 97(2), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cunha, F., Heckman, J., Locner, L., & Masterov, D. (2006). Interpreting the evidence on life cycle skill formation. In E. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education (pp. 697–812). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. Dougherty, C. (2003). Numeracy, literacy and earnings: evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Economics of Education Review, 22(5), 511–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feinstein, L. (2003). Inequality in the early cognitive development of British children. Economica, 70(277), 73–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Field, S., Kuczera, M. & Pont, B. (2007). No more failures: Ten steps to equity in education. Paris: OECD. http://www.oecd.org/education/school/39989494.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  18. French, D. C., & Conrad, J. (2001). School dropout as predicted by peer rejection and antisocial behaviour. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(3), 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frønes, I. (2010). Status zero youth in the welfare society. Child Indicators Research, 4(3), 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heckman, J. (2000). The real question is how to use the available funds wisely. The best evidence supports the policy prescription: Invest in the very young. Chicago: Ounce of Prevention Fund. http://www.ounceofprevention.org/news/pdfs/HeckmanInvestInVeryYoung.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  21. Jackson, S., & Cameron, C. (2011). Young people from a public care background: Pathways to further and higher education in europe. Final report of the YiPPEE project. London: Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  22. Jennings, J. L., & DiPrete, A. (2010). Teacher effects on social and behavioral skills in early elementary school. Sociology of Education, 83(2), 135–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klasen, S. (2001). Social exclusion, children, and education: conceptual and measurement issues. European Societies, 3(4), 413–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lavy, L., Silva, O. & Weinhardt, F. (2009). The good, the bad and the average: Evidence on the scale and nature of ability peer effects in schools. NBER Working Papers 15600. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. http://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/15600.html. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  26. McNally, S., & Telhaj, S. (2007). The cost of exclusion. London: The Prince’s Trust, with the Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics.Google Scholar
  27. Melton, G. (2010). Angels (and neighbors) watching over us: child safety and family support in an age of alienation. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 3, pp. 570–599). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Nickell, S., & Bell, B. (1995). The collapse in demand for the unskilled and unemployment across the OECD. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 11(1), 40–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. OECD (2011). Employment Outlook 2011. http://www.oecd.org/els/oecdemploymentoutlook2011.htm. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  31. OECD (2012a). Better life index Norway. http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/norway/. Accessed 23 Jan 2015.
  32. OECD (2012b). Equity and equality in education: Supporting disadvantaged students and schools. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/edu/preschoolandschool/49478474.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  33. Pape, K., Bjørngaard, J. H., Westin, S., Holmen, T. L. & Krogstad, S. (2009). Reading and writing difficulties in adolescence and later risk of welfare dependence: a ten-year follow-up, the HUNT Study, Norway. BMC Public Health. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/11/718. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  34. Reynolds, A. J., & Clements, M. (2005). Parental involvement and children’s school success. In E. N. Patrikakou, R. Weisberg, P. S. Redding, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), School-family partnerships for children’s success (pp. 109–130). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  35. Schleicher, A. (2006). The economics of knowledge: Why education is key for Europe’s success. Paris: OECD. http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/36278531.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  36. Settersten, R. A., Jr., Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., & Rumbaut, R. G. (Eds.). (2005). On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Sideridis, G. D. (2005). Goal orientation, academic achievement, and depression: evidence in favor of a revised goal theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 366–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Socialstyrelsen (2010). Skolbetyg, utbildning och risker för ogynnsam utveckling hos barn. [Grades, education and risk for unfortunate development in children] In: Social rapport 2010. Socialstyrelsen, Stockholm, chap. 7. http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/publikationer2010/socialreport-summary. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  39. Staer, Trine. Forthcoming. Ethnic disproportionality in the child welfare system. A Norwegian national cohort study.Google Scholar
  40. Strompolis, M., Vishnevsky, T., Reeve, C. L., Munsell, E. P., Cook, J. R., & Kilmer, R. P. (2012). Educational outcomes in a system of care for children with emotional disturbance. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(1), 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sykes, B., & Kuyper, H. (2009). Neighbourhood effects on youth educational achievement in the Netherlands: can effects be identified and do they vary by student background characteristics? Environment and Planning, 41(10), 2417–2436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turkheimer, E., Haley, A., D’Onofrio, B., Waldron, M., & Gottesman, I. (2003). Socioeconomic status modifies heritability of IQ in young children. Psychological Science, 14(6), 623–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ungar, M. (2011). The social ecology of resilience: addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vinnerljung, B., & Hjern, A. (2011). Cognitive, educational and self-support outcomes of long-term foster care versus adoption. A Swedish national cohort study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1902–1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vinnerljung, B., Öman, M., & Gunnarsson, T. (2005). Educational attainments of former child welfare clients–a Swedish national cohort study. International Journal of Social Welfare, 14(4), 265–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Von Stumm, S., Mcintyre, S., Batty, D. G., Clark, H., & Deary, J. J. (2010). Intelligence, social class of origin, childhood behavior disturbance and education as predictors of status attainment in midlife in men: the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study. Intelligence, 38(1), 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Waldfogel, J. & Washbrook, E. (2010). Low income and early cognitive development in the UK. A Report for the Sutton Trust 2010. London: Sutton Trust. http://research-information.bristol.ac.uk/files/9907648/Waldfogel_Washbrook_Sutton_Trust.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2015.
  48. Wilson, S. J., Tanner-Smith, E. E., Lipse, M. W., Steinka-Fry, K., & Morrison, J. (2011). Dropout prevention and intervention programs: effects on school completion and dropout among school-aged children and youth. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2011, 8. doi: 10.4073/csr.2011.8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Human GeographyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations